Structural Analysis of Recent Allergen-Antibody Complexes and Future Directions
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Purpose of Review
Allergen-antibody complexes are extremely valuable in describing the detailed molecular features of epitopes. This review summarizes insights gained from recently published co-structures and what obstacles impede the acquisition of further data.
Structural epitope data helped define the epitopes of two anti-Fel d 1 antibodies undergoing phase I clinical trials, providing a greater level of detail than was possible through hydrogen-deuterium exchange protection studies. Separately, a human camelid-like antibody structure with lysozyme described several unique features in a long variable loop that interacted with the active site cleft of Gal d 4. Finally, a co-structure conclusively demonstrated that Phl p 7 could function as a superantigen and that an antibody could simultaneously recognize two epitopes. These remarkable assertions would not have been possible without visualization of the complex. Only three new complexes have appeared in the last few years, suggesting that there are major impediments to traditional production and crystallization.
The structural data was extremely valuable in describing epitopes. New techniques like cryo-EM may provide an alternative to crystallography.
KeywordsAllergens Antibodies Structure Complex Epitope Crystallography
Research reported in this publication was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (Research Project nos. Z01-ES102906-01, G.A.M. and ZIA-ES102645, L.C.P.), and in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AI077653 (to A.P., contact PI). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Pomés reports grants from NIH-NIAID during the conduct of the study and is employed by Indoor Biotechnologies, Inc., outside the submitted work. Drs. Mueller, Min, Foo, and Pedersen declare no conflict of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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