Role of the Microbiome in Food Allergy
Purpose of Review
Resident microbial communities likely modify risk for allergic disorders, including food allergy. We review epidemiologic studies linking microbial exposures to food allergy risk and discuss the mechanisms by which the microbiome may modulate oral tolerance. We additionally address ongoing translational efforts in human microbiome studies.
Epidemiologic studies and murine models support that altered microbial exposures and colonization in early life modify food allergy risk. Differential microbiota confer protection or susceptibility to food allergy by modulating the regulatory tone of the mucosal immune system. Recent efforts are focused on the identification of bacterial strains necessary for oral tolerance in human and microbial-based clinical trials.
Early childhood appears to be critical for the colonization of a diverse microbiota necessary for the induction and maintenance of oral tolerance. Identification and functional evaluation of protective commensal microbes will inform strategies for the prevention and treatment of food allergy.
KeywordsFood allergy Microbiome Microbiota Peanut allergy Probiotics Oral tolerance
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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