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MicroRNAs in Allergy and Asthma

  • Ana RebaneEmail author
  • Cezmi A. Akdis
Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation (DP Huston, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation

Abstract

microRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded RNA molecules that function together with the partner proteins and cause degradation of target mRNAs or inhibit their translation. A particular miRNA can have hundreds of targets; therefore, miRNAs cumulatively influence the expression of a large proportion of genes. The functions of miRNAs in human diseases have been studied since their discovery in mammalian cells approximately 12 years ago. However, the role of miRNAs in allergic disease has only very recently begun to be uncovered. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the functions of miRNAs involved in the development of allergic diseases. We describe here the functions of miRNAs that regulate Th2 polarization and influence general inflammatory and tissue responses. In addition, we will highlight findings about the functions of extracellular miRNAs as possible noninvasive biomarkers of diseases with heterogeneous phenotypes and complex mechanisms and briefly discuss advances in the development of miRNA-based therapeutics.

Keywords

Allergy Asthma Atopic Non-coding RNA T cells Dendritic cells Epithelial cells microRNA Extracellular miRNA 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation grant 32-112306, the Christine Kühne-Center for Allergy Research and Education, Davos Switzerland (CK-CARE), Swiss-Polish contribution, European Regional Fund with Archimedes Foundation, EU structural assistance grant SARMP12219T and personal research grant PUT214 from the Estonian Research Council.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Ana Rebane and Cezmi A. Akdis declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biomedicine and Translational MedicineUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  2. 2.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF)University of ZürichDavosSwitzerland
  3. 3.Christine Kühne-Center for Allergy Research and Education (CK-CARE) DavosDavosSwitzerland

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