Cellular Immune Response in Young Children Accounts for Recurrent Acute Otitis Media
Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common disease in young children. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are the two most common pathogens that cause AOM. Over the past 5 years, our group has been studying the immunologic profile of children that experience repeated AOM infections despite tympanocentesis drainage of middle ear fluid and individualized antibiotic treatment; we call these children stringently-defined otitis-prone (sOP). Although protection against AOM is primarily mediated by ototpathogen-specific antibody, our recent studies suggest that suboptimal memory B and T cell responses and an immaturity in antigen-presenting cells may play a significant role in the propensity to recurrent AOM infections. This review focuses on the studies performed to define immunologic dysfunction in sOP children.
KeywordsAcute otitis media Cellular immune response Recurrent otitis media Streptococcus pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae Memory T cells Memory B cells Cytokine response Dendritic cells
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Conflict of Interest
Sharad K. Sharma and Michael E. Pichichero declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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