Role of Fungi in the Pathophysiology of Chronic Rhinosinusitis: An Update
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The pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is multi-factorial with an infectious process likely at least partly involved. While bacteria have been proposed to play a critical role in CRS, fungi have also been implicated by some investigators, although the pathogenesis of fungi in CRS represents a significant controversy among rhinologists. Fungal-associated factors believed to be involved in CRS include the ability of fungi to induce significant inflammatory reactions by different means through inducing localized cytokine production in the sinonasal tract. Despite these observations, randomized, controlled studies on CRS patients using antifungal therapy have not resulted in significant improvement in CRS patients. The role of fungi in the pathogenesis of CRS remains controversial.