Advertisement

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 424–428 | Cite as

Exposure to Dog Allergens and Subsequent Allergic Sensitization: An Updated Review

  • Jordan SmallwoodEmail author
  • Dennis Ownby
ALLERGENS (RK BUSH, SECTION EDITOR)

Abstract

Dog exposure and development or exacerbation of allergic disease and asthma remains an important topic of research. The emotional connection between humans and pets can be quite influential in decisions about removing a pet from the home for health reasons. Patients also often ask about “hypoallergenic” dog breeds or treatments to make their dog less allergenic. Research has examined the link between early life exposure (prenatal, perinatal, childhood) to dogs and an apparent reduced risk of developing allergies later in life, but no consensus has emerged to assist patients or physicians. An important question is whether there are certain ages or conditions under which living with a dog may increase or decrease the risk of allergic sensitization. A better understanding of the variables influencing the outcome of in-home dog exposure will hopefully make significant advances toward alleviating the symptoms associated with allergic sensitization to dogs.

Keywords

Dog Can f 1 Asthma IgE Sensitization Age-related exposure Microbiome Hypoallergenic Socioeconomic Toxocara Sublingual Immunotherapy Allergens Treatment 

Notes

Disclosure

No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    • Ownby D. Pet dander and difficult-to-control asthma: The burden of illness. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010;31:381–4. This article highlights the overall cost that accompanies poorly managed asthma, especially when exacerbated by exposure to dogs, and emphasizes the need for increased education of the patient and family. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bertelsen RJ, Carlsen KC, Carlsen KH, et al. Childhood asthma and early life exposure to indoor allergens, endotoxin, and β (1, 3)-glucans. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;40:307–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ling M, Long A. Pet dander and difficult-to-control asthma: Therapeutic options. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010;31:385–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nicholas C, Wegienka G, Havstad S, et al. Dog characteristics and allergen levels in the home. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;105:228–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chin C, Tischer C, Schnappinger M, et al. The role of cats and dogs in asthma and allergy-a systematic review. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010;213:1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Almqvist C, Garden F, Kemp S, et al. Effects of early cat or dog ownership on sensitization and asthma in a high-risk cohort without disease-related modification of exposure. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010;24:171–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    •• Wegienka G, Johnson CC, Havstad S, et al. Lifetime dog and cat exposure and dog- and cat-specific sensitization at age 18 years. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:979–86. This article represents some of the most up to date research into prenatal and perinatal exposure to dog allergens and the potential protective benefit it offers against sensitization to aeroallergens. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carlsten C, Ferguson A, Dimich-Ward H, et al. Association between endotoxin and mite allergen exposure with asthma and specific sensitization at age 7 in high-risk children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011;22:320–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lodge C, Allen K, Lowe A, et al. Perinatal cat and dog exposure and the risk of asthma and allergy in the urban environment: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Clin Dev Immunol vol. 2012, Article ID 176484, 10 pages. 2012.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    • Morris D. Human allergy to environmental pet danders: a public health perspective. Vet Dermatol. 2010;21:441–9. This article provides a good overview of dog allergens and their effect on patients. As it is written from a veterinarian’s point of view, it offers different but still important insight. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    •• Mattson L, Lundgren T, Everberg H, et al. Prostatic kallikrein: a new major dog allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:362–8. Highlights up to date research on the various dog allergens discovered thus far and provides the impetus to continue the search for further major and minor dog allergens. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takkouche B, Barcala G, Etminan M, et al. Exposure to furry pets and the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis: a meta-analysis. Allergy. 2008;63:857–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lombardi E, Simoni M, La Grutta S, et al. Effects of pet exposure in the first year of life on respiratory and allergic symptoms in 7-year-old children. The SIDRIA-2 study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21:268–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    • Havstad S, Wegienka G, Zoratti E, et al. Effect of prenatal indoor pet exposure on the trajectory of total IgE levels in early childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:880–5. Provides an evaluation of the effect of pet exposure in a population based cohort using multiple early life measures of total IgE. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Apfelbacher CJ, Ollert M, Ring J, et al. Contact to cat or dog, allergies and parental education. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21:284–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    • Bertelsen RJ, Carlsen KC, Granum B, et al. Do allergic families avoid keeping furry pets? Indoor Air. 2010;20:187–95. Highlights the ongoing research into family demographics and dog ownership. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eller E, Roll S, Chem CM, et al. Meta-analysis of determinants for pet ownership in 12 European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies: a GA2LEN initiative. Allergy. 2008;63:1491–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buijs J, Egbers MW, Lokhorst WH, et al. Toxocara induced eosinophilic inflammation: airway function and effect of anti-IL5. Am J Resp Crit Care. 1995;151:873–8.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Walsh M. Toxocara infection and diminished lung function in a nationally representative sample from the United States population. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:243–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pinelli E, Withagen C, Fonville M, et al. Persistent airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in Toxocara canis-infected BALB/c mice. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:826–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Weiss ST. Parasites and asthma/allergy: what is the relationship? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;105:205–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carlsten C, Dimich-ard H, Becker AB, et al. Indoor allergen exposure, sensitization, and development of asthma in a high-risk birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21:740–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lemanske Jr R. The Childhood Origins of Asthma (COAST) study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2002;13:38–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    • Wise S, Schlosser R. Subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: what is the evidence? Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2012;26:18–22. Up to date overview of new treatments being developed for patients sensitized to dog allergen and review of current treatment recommendations. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roder E, Berger M, de Groot H, et al. Immunotherapy in children and adolescents with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: a systematic review. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2008;19:197–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Radulovic S, Calderon M, Wilson D, et al. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;12:1–123.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy-Immunology-RheumatologyGeorgia Health Sciences UniversityAugustaUSA

Personalised recommendations