Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 139–146 | Cite as

The effect of air pollution on asthma and allergy

Article

Abstract

Air pollution exposure is associated with increased asthma and allergy morbidity and is a suspected contributor to the increasing prevalence of allergic conditions. Observational studies continue to strengthen the association between air pollution and allergic respiratory disease, whereas recent mechanistic studies have defined the prominent role of oxidative stress in the proallergic immunologic effects of particulate and gaseous pollutants. The identification of common genetic polymorphisms in key cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress has highlighted the importance of individual host susceptibility to pollutant-induced inflammation. Future therapy to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution on allergic respiratory disease will likely depend on targeting susceptible populations for treatment that reduces oxidative stress, potentially through enhancement of phase 2 enzymes or other antioxidant defenses.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Eder W, Ege MJ, von Mutius E: The asthma epidemic. N Engl J Med 2006, 355:2226–2235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li N, Hao M, Phalen RF, et al.: Particulate air pollutants and asthma: a paradigm for the role of oxidative stress in PM-induced adverse health effects. Clin Immunol 2003, 109:250–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization: Meta-analysis of time-series studies and panel studies of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3). Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/document/e82792.pdf. Accessed December 26, 2007.
  4. 4.
    Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Gilliland F, et al.: The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. N Engl J Med 2004, 351:1057–1067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abbey DE, Burchette RJ, Knutsen SF, et al.: Long-term particulate and other air pollutants and lung function in nonsmokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998, 158:289–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Watts J: Doctors blame air pollution for China’s asthma increases. Lancet 2006, 368:719–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    World Health Organization: Health aspects of air pollution with particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Report on a WHO Working Group: Bonn: World Health Organization 2003. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/document/e79097.pdf. Accessed November 2, 2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, et al.: Traffic, susceptibility, and childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect 2006, 114:766–772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilson SR, Yamada EG, Sudhakar R, et al.: A controlled trial of an environmental tobacco smoke reduction intervention in low-income children with asthma. Chest 2001, 120:1709–1722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Janssen NAH, Brunekreef B, Van Vliet P, et al.: The relationship between air pollution from heavy traffic and allergic sensitization, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and respiratory symptoms in Dutch schoolchildren. Environ Health Perspect 2003, 111:1512–1518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gergen PJ, Turkeltaub PC, Kovar MG: The prevalence of allergic skin test reactivity for common aeroallergens in the US population: results from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987, 80:669–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pénard-Morand C, Charpin D, Raherison C, et al.: Long-term exposure to background air pollution related to respiratory and allergic health in schoolchildren. Clin Exp Allergy 2005, 35:1279–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Devouassoux G, Saxon A, Metcalfe DD, et al.: Chemical constituents of diesel exhaust particles induce IL-4 production and histamine release by human basophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002, 109:847–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Salvi S, Blomberg A, Rudell B, et al.: Acute inflammatory responses in the airways and peripheral blood after short-term exposure to diesel exhaust in healthy human volunteers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999, 159:702–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nordenhall C, Pourazar J, Ledin MC, et al.: Diesel exhaust enhances airway responsiveness in asthmatic subjects. Eur Respir J 2001, 17:909–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Takenaka H, Zhang K, Diaz-Sanchez D, et al.: Enhanced human IgE production results from exposure to the aromatic hydrocarbons from diesel exhaust: direct effects on B-cell IgE production. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995, 95:103–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fahy O, Hammad H, Senechal S, et al.: Synergistic effect of diesel organic extracts and allergen Der p 1 on the release of chemokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic subjects: involvement of the map kinase pathway. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2000, 23:247–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bayram H, Devalia JL, Khair OA, et al.: Comparison of ciliary activity and inflammatory mediator release from bronchial epithelial cells of nonatopic nonasthmatic subjects and atopic asthmatic patients and the effect of diesel exhaust particles in vitro. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998, 102:771–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nel AE, Diaz-Sanchez D, Ng D, et al.: Enhancement of allergic inflammation by the interaction between diesel exhaust particles and the immune system. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998, 102:539–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Diaz-Sanchez D, Tsien A, Fleming J, et al.: Combined diesel exhaust particulate and ragweed allergen challenge markedly enhances human in vivo nasal ragweed-specific IgE and skews cytokine production to a T helper cell 2-type pattern. J Immunol 1997, 158:2406–2413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Diaz-Sanchez D, Penichet-Garcia M, Saxon A: Diesel exhaust particles directly induce activated mast cells to degranulate and increase histamine levels and symptom severity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000, 106:1140–1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vagaggini B, Taccola M, Cianchetti S, et al.: Ozone exposure increases eosinophilic airway response induced by previous allergen challenge. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002, 166:1073–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Diaz-Sanchez D, Garcia MP, Wang M, et al.: Nasal challenge with diesel exhaust particles can induce sensitization to a neoallergen in the human mucosa. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999, 104:1183–1188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arbes SJ Jr, Gergen PJ, Elliott L, et al.: Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the US population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005, 116:377–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    American Lung Association: State of the Air 2005. Available at: www.lungusa2.org/embargo/sota05/SOTA05_final.pdf. Accessed November 2, 2007.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ziska LH, Gebhard DE, Frenz DA, et al.: Cities as harbingers of climate change: common ragweed, urbanization, and public health. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003, 111:290–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bowler RP, Crapo JD: Oxidative stress in allergic respiratory disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002, 110:349–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li N, Wang M, Oberley TD, et al.: Comparison of the pro-oxidative and proinflammatory effects of organic diesel exhaust particle chemicals in bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages. J Immunol 2002, 169:4531–4541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gurgueira SA, Lawrence J, Coull B, et al.: Rapid increases in the steady-state concentration of reactive oxygen species in the lungs and heart after particulate air pollution inhalation. Environ Health Perspect 2002, 110:749–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nightingale JA, Maggs R, Cullinan P, et al.: Airway inflammation after controlled exposure to diesel exhaust particulates. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000, 162:161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ng D, Kokot N, Hiura T, et al.: Macrophage activation by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: evidence for the involvement of stress-activated protein kinases, activator protein-1, and antioxidant response elements. J Immunol 1998, 161:942–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hashimoto S, Gon Y, Takeshita I, et al.: Diesel exhaust particles activate p38 MAP kinase to produce interleukin 8 and RANTES by human bronchial epithelial cells and N-acetylcysteine attenuates p38 MAP kinase activation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000, 161:280–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pacheco KA, Tarkowski M, Sterritt C, et al.: The influence of diesel exhaust particles on mononuclear phagocytic cell-derived cytokines: IL-10, TGF-beta and IL-1 beta. Clin Exp Immunol 2001, 126:374–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chan RC, Wang M, Li N, et al.: Pro-oxidative diesel exhaust particle chemicals inhibit LPS-induced dendritic cell responses involved in T-helper differentiation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006, 118:455–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kim HJ, Barajas B, Chan RC, Nel AE: Glutathione depletion inhibits dendritic cell maturation and delayed-type hypersensitivity: implications for systemic disease and immunosenescence. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007, 119:1225–1233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gilliland FD, Li YF, Saxon A, et al.: Effect of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and P1 genotypes on xenobiotic enhancement of allergic responses: randomised, placebocontrolled crossover study. Lancet 2004, 363:119–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kamada F, Mashimo Y, Inoue H, et al.: The GSTP1 gene is a susceptibility gene for childhood asthma and the GSTM1 gene is a modifier of the GSTP1 gene. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2007, 144:275–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Romieu I, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Sienra-Monge JJ, et al.: GSTM1 and GSTP1 and respiratory health in asthmatic children exposed to ozone. Eur Respir J 2006, 28:953–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gilliland FD, Li YF, Gong H Jr, Diaz-Sanchez D: Glutathione s-transferases M1 and P1 prevent aggravation of allergic responses by secondhand smoke. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006, 174:1335–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Choudhry S, Avila PC, Nazario S, et al.: CD14 tobacco gene-environment interaction modifies asthma severity and immunoglobulin E levels in Latinos with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005, 172:173–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li YF, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, et al.: Associations of tumor necrosis factor G-308A with childhood asthma and wheezing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006, 173:970–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alzoghaibi MA, Bahammam AS: Lipid peroxides in stable asthmatics receiving inhaled steroids and long-acting beta2-agonists. Respirology 2007, 12:439–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vagaggini B, Taccola M, Conti I, et al.: Budesonide reduces neutrophilic but not functional airway response to ozone in mild asthmatics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001, 164:2172–2176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Davies RJ, Rusznak C, Calderón MA, et al.: Allergen-irritant interaction and the role of corticosteroids. Allergy 1997, 52(38 Suppl):59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Diaz-Sanchez D, Tsien A, Fleming J, et al.: Effect of topical fluticasone propionate on the mucosal allergic response induced by ragweed allergen and diesel exhaust particle challenge. Clin Immunol 1999, 90:313–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramirez-Aguilar M, et al.: Genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and antioxidant supplementation influence lung function in relation to ozone exposure in asthmatic children in Mexico City. Thorax 2004, 59:8–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D: Phase II enzymes induction blocks the enhanced IgE production in B cells by diesel exhaust particles. J Immunol 2006, 177:3477–3483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ritz SA, Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D: Sulforaphane-stimulated phase II enzyme induction inhibits cytokine production by airway epithelial cells stimulated with diesel extract. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007, 292:L33–L39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kruzel ML, Bacsi A, Choudhury B, et al.: Lactoferrin decreases pollen antigen-induced allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Immunology 2006, 119:159–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ryan JJ, Bateman HR, Stover A, et al.: Fullerene nanomaterials inhibit the allergic response. J Immunol 2007, 179:665–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineUCLA—David Geffen School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations