Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 227–234 | Cite as

Viral rhinitis

  • Deborah A. Gentile
  • David P. Skoner

Abstract

Viral rhinitis is a common, morbid, and costly malady, often complicated by otitis media, sinusitis, and asthma. Current therapies are relatively ineffective and aimed at reducing symptoms rather than moderating underlying mechanisms. Nasal elevations of proinflammatory cytokines track symptom expression during viral rhinitis, and it is hypothesized that these chemicals orchestrate a common response to infection with many different viruses that cause rhinitis. Also, recent evidence supports a role for neurogenic inflammation in the development of complications. Future studies should dissect the role of proinflammatory cytokines and neuropeptides in the expression of symptoms, signs, pathophysiologies, and complications of viral rhinitis.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Gwaltney JM Jr, Phillips CD, Miller RD, Riker DK: Computed tomographic study of the common cold. N Engl J Med 1994, 330:25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Henderson FW, Collier AM, Sanyai MA, et al.: A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion. N Engl J Med 1982, 306:1377–1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lemanske RF Jr, Dick EC, Swenson CA, et al.: Rhinovirus upper respiratory infection increases airway hyperreactivity and late asthmatic reactions. J Clin Invest 1989, 83:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Igarashi Y, Skoner DP, Doyle WJ, et al.: Analysis of nasal secretions during phases of experimental rhinovirus upper respiratory tract infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993, 92:722–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doyle WJ, Skoner DP, White MV, et al.: Pattern of nasal secretions during experimental influenza virus infection. Rhinology 1996, 34:2–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Turner RB, Witek TJ, Riker DK: Comparison of symptom severity in natural and experimentally induced colds. Am J Rhinol 1996, 10:167–172.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Doyle WJ, Skoner DP, Hayden F, et al.: Nasal and otologic effects of experimental influenza A virus infection. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1994, 103:59–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alper C, Doyle W, Skoner D, et al.: Prechallenge antibodies moderate disease expression in adults experimentally exposed to rhinovirus strain Hanks. Clin Infect Dis 1998, 27:119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Skoner DP, Whiteside TL, Wilson JW, et al.: Effect of rhinovirus 39 (RV-39) infection on immune parameters in allergic and non-allergic subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993, 92:732–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Naclerio RM, Proud D, Lichtenstein LM, et al.: Kinins are generated during experimental rhinovirus colds. J Infect Dis 1988, 157:133–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gentile DA, Patel A, Doyle WJ, et al.: Elevations of local leukotriene C4 levels during experimental viral upper respiratory infections. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000, 161:A179.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gentile D, Doyle W, Whiteside T, et al.: Increased IL-6 levels in nasal lavage samples following experimental influenza A virus infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1998, 5:604–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Skoner DP, Gentile DA, Patel A, Doyle WJ: Evidence for cytokine mediation of symptoms in adults experimentally infected with influenza A virus. J Infect Dis 1999, 180:10–14. This study demonstrates an association between viral replication, local IL-6 production, and symptom expression during experimental infection of adults with influenza A virus. These results suggest that IL-6 may have a role in mediating symptoms and signs of infection during influenza A infection.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Doyle WJ, Boehm S, Skoner DP: Physiologic responses to intranasal dose-response challenges with histamine, methacholine, bradykinin and prostaglandin in adult volunteers with and without nasal allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990, 86:924–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Douglass JA, Dhami D, Gurr CE, et al.: Influence of interleukin-8 challenge in the nasal mucosa in atopic and nonatopic subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994, 150:1108–1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gentile DA, Yokitis J, Angelini BL, et al.: Effect of intranasal challenge with IL-6 on airway symptomatology and physiology in allergic and non-allergic subjects. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000, 84:130.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Doyle WJ, McBride TP, Skoner DP, et al.: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of the effect of chlorpheniramine on the response of the nasal airway, ME and eustachian tube to provocative rhinovirus challenge. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1988, 7:229–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Skoner DP, Fireman PF, Doyle WJ: Urine histamine metabolite elevations during experimental colds. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997, 99:S419.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Higgins PG, Barrow GI, Tyrrell DA: A study of the efficacy of the bradykinin antagonist, NPC 567, in rhinovirus infections in human volunteers. Antiviral Res 1990, 14:339–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bisgaard H, Olsson P, Bende M: Effect of leukotriene D4 on nasal mucosal blood flow, nasal airway resistance and nasal secretion in humans. Clin Allergy 1986, 16:289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaul P, Singh I, Turner R: Effect of nitric oxide on rhinovirus replication and virus-induced IL-8 elaboration. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999, 159:1193–1198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yuta A, Doyle WJ, Gaumond E, et al.: Rhinovirus infection induces mucus hypersecretion. Am J Physiol 1998, 274:L1017-L1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Einarsson O, Geba GP, Zhu Z, et al.: Interleukin-11: stimulation in vivo and in vitro by respiratory viruses and induction of airway hyperresponsiveness. J Clin Invest 1996, 97:915–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mullol J, Chowdoury BA, White MV, et al.: Endothelin in human nasal mucosa. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1993, 8:393–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mosimann BL, White MV, Hohman RJ, et al.: Substance P, calcitonin-gene related peptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide increase in nasal secretions after allergen challenge in atopic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993, 92:95–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hayden FG, Fritz R, Lobo MC, et al.: Local and systemic cytokine responses during experimental human influenza A virus infection: relation to symptom formation and host defense. J Clin Invest 1998, 101:643–649. This study examined serial levels of cytokines in nasal lavage fluid, serum, and plasma in adults experimentally infected with influenza A virus. The results support a role for IL-6 and interferon-a in the development of symptoms and host defense during influenza infection.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pitkaranta A, Nokso-Koivisto J, Jantti V, et al.: Lowered yields of virus-induced interferon production in leukocyte cultures and risk of recurrent respiratory infections in children. J Clin Virol 1999, 14:199–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tang YW, Graham BS: Anti-IL-4 treatment at immunization modulates cytokine expression, reduces illness, and increases cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in mice challenged with respiratory syncytial virus. J Clin Invst 1994, 94:1953–1958.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Raza M, Essery S, Weir D, et al.: Infection with respiratory syncytial virus and water-soluble components of cigarette smoke alter production of TNF-a and nitric oxide by human blood monocytes. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1999, 24:387–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Matsuda K, Tsutsumi H, Okamoto Y, Chiba C: Development of IL-6 and TNF-a activity in nasopharyngeal secretions of infants and children during infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1995, 2:322–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hornsleth A, Klug B, Nir M, et al.: Severity of respiratory syncytial virus disease related to type and genotype of virus and to cytokine values in nasopharyngeal secretions. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998, 17:1114–1121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Subauste MC, Jacoby DB, Richards SM, Proud D: Infection of a human respiratory epithelial line with rhinovirus: induction of cytokine release and modulation of susceptibility to infection by cytokine exposure. J Clin Invest 1995, 96:549–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yoon HJ, Zhu Z, Gwaltney JM, Elias JA: Rhinovirus regulation of IL-1 receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro: a potential mechanism of symptom resolution. J Immunol 1999, 162:7461–7469. This study examined the mechanism of disease resolution during rhinovirus infection. The results suggest that IL-1ra may play an important role in the resolution of rhinovirus infection.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Turner RB, Weingand KWQ, Yeh CH, Leedy DW: Association between interleukin-8 concentration in nasal secretions and severity of symptoms of experimental rhinovirus colds. Clin Exp Allergy 1995, 25:46–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Borish L, Aarons A, Rumbyrt J, et al.: Interleukin-10 regulation in normal subjects and patients with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996, 97:1288–1296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gentile DA, Patel A, Ollila C, et al.: Diminished IL-10 production in subjects with allergy after infection with influenza A virus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999, 103:1045–1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Swiergiel AH, Smagin GN, Johnson LJ, Dunn AJ: The role of cytokines in the behavioral responses to endotoxin and influenza virus infection in mice: effects of acute and chronic administration of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Brain Res 1997, 776:96–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mira J, Cariou A, Grall F, Delclaux C: Association of TNF2, a TNF-a promoter polymorphism, with septic shock and susceptibility to mortality. JAMA 1999, 282:561–568. This study reported a higher frequency of TNF2, a polymorphism associated with high production of TNF-a, in individuals with septic shock compared with the general population. This study also showed increased concentrations of TNF-a in subjects with this polymorphism. It is conceivable that this polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to viral rhinitis and its complications.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sawyer LA: Antibodies for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. Antiviral Res 2000, 47:57–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Deguchi Y, Takusugi Y: Efficacy of influenza vaccine in the elderly: reduction in risks of mortality and morbidity during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic for the elderly in nursing homes. Int J Clin Lab Res 2000, 30:1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Doyle WJ, Skoner DP, Alper CM, et al.: Effect of rimantadine treatment on clinical manifestations and otologic complications in adults experimentally infected with influenza A (H1N1) virus. J Infect Dis 1998, 177:1260–1265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hayden FG, Hay AJ: Emergence and transmission of influenza A viruses resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1992, 176:119–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gwaltney JM Jr, Park J, Paul RA, et al.: Randomized controlled trial of clemastine fumarate for treatment of experimental rhinovirus colds. Clin Infect Dis 1996, 22:656–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gentile DA, Friday G, Skoner DP: Management of rhinitis: antihistamines and decongestants. In Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America. Edited by Vassallo J. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2000:355–368.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dykewicz MS, Fineman S, Skoner DP, et al.: Diagnosis and management of rhinitis: parameter documents of the joint task force on practice parameters for allergy, asthma and immunology. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998, 36:292–300. This document contains complete guidelines for diagnosis and management of rhinitis developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters in Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. It includes a review of clinical characterizations and diagnosis of different forms of rhinitis, recommendations on evaluation, and parameters on management, including pharmacologic therapy. Guidelines are also presented on special considerations in patient subsets (children, the elderly, and pregnant women).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Berkowitz RB, Tinkelman DG: Evaluation of oral terfenadine for treatment of the common cold. Ann Allergy 1991, 67:593–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Paolieri F, Battifora M, Riccio AM, et al.: Terfenadine and fexofenadine reduce in vitro ICAM-1 expression on human continuous cell lines. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998, 81:601–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Garabedian EN: Effect of loratadine syrup in the treatment of otitis media with effusion (OME): a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999, 103:S255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dockhorn R: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of ipratropium bromide nasal spray versus placebo in patients with the common cold. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992, 90:1076–1082.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Prasad AS, Fitzgerald JT, Bao B, et al.: Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000, 133:245–252. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the efficacy of zinc in reducing the duration of symptoms of the common cold. Administration of zinc was associated with reduced duration and severity of cold symptoms, especially cough.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah A. Gentile
    • 1
  • David P. Skoner
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Allergy/ImmunologyChildren’s Hospital of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations