Distinct effects of visual and auditory temporal processing training on reading and reading-related abilities in Chinese children with dyslexia

  • Li-Chih WangEmail author
  • Duo Liu
  • Zhengye Xu


This study aimed to examine the effects of temporal processing training on the reading abilities of Chinese children with dyslexia. In total, 69 Chinese children with dyslexia in grades three through six were recruited in Taiwan. The children were divided into the following three equal groups: (1) auditory temporal processing training group, (2) visual temporal processing training group, and (3) control group with no specific training. The participants in both training groups received instruction with identical durations (30–40 min), intensities (12 times in total), and frequencies (three to four times per week). The participants in the control group were asked to independently surf some specified websites using devices similar to those used by the two experimental groups for an identical duration, intensity, and frequency. Our results indicated that the two groups who received temporal processing training exhibited significant correlations among Chinese character reading, rapid naming, and corresponding reading-related abilities, while visual temporal processing served as a significant predictor of Chinese character reading ability even if all background data, reading-related abilities, and auditory temporal processing were introduced first. Additionally, significant interactions were found between the Groups and Tested sessions in all the measures, except for phonological awareness, confirming the distinct effects of different temporal processing on most measures involved in this study. Further simple main effects revealed that only those who received the visual temporal processing training gained benefits in the corresponding reading-related ability (i.e., orthographic knowledge) and far-transfer to Chinese character reading.


Auditory temporal processing training Chinese reading Dyslexia Visual temporal processing training 



The work described in this article was supported by the Departmental Research Seed Fund of Department of Special Education and Counselling at the Education University of Hong Kong.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© The International Dyslexia Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Special Education and CounsellingThe Education University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.Integrated Centre for WellbeingThe Education University of Hong KongHong KongChina

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