Predicting reading disabilities using dynamic assessment of decoding before and after the onset of reading instruction: a longitudinal study from kindergarten through grade 2
- 663 Downloads
The present study examined the predictive validity of a dynamic test of decoding in which participants are taught three novel letters and how to synthesize the corresponding letter sounds into new words. One version of this dynamic test was administered to 158 kindergarten children before the onset of formal reading instruction along with traditional predictors of reading. Similarly, a parallel version of the dynamic test was administered to the same children after a few months of formal reading instruction. At the end of grade 2, the children were assessed on outcome measures of reading and categorized as having disabilities with either accuracy or fluency measures. Administered before as well as after the onset of formal reading instruction, the dynamic test of decoding contributed uniquely to the prediction of difficulties with reading accuracy at the end of grade 2 after control for traditional predictors of reading. Difficulties with reading fluency were also predicted by the dynamic decoding test, but the unique prediction value was more limited. This study showed that a dynamic assessment of decoding can be a useful addition to traditional test batteries for early identification of children at risk for reading disabilities. Even when taken before formal reading instruction, a combination of the dynamic assessment and two traditional measures (letter knowledge and rapid automatized naming) yielded a very high prediction accuracy of reading difficulties at the end of grade 2.
KeywordsDecoding Dynamic assessment Early identification Prediction Reading disabilities
The authors are grateful to several MA students for their help with data collection, and to the children and their schools for their participation.
This research was supported by the Danish foundation Trygfonden, the Danish Ministry of Education, and the Danish Ministry of Social Affairs.
- Borstrøm, I., & Petersen, D. K. (2006). Læseevaluering på begyndertrinnet [Evaluation of beginning reading] (2nd ed.). Copenhagen, Denmark: Alinea.Google Scholar
- Catts, H. W., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., Bridges, M. S., & Mendoza, K. (2009). Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early identification of reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 163–176. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219408326219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cho, E., Compton, D. L., Gilbert, J. K., Steacy, L. M., Collins, A. A., & Lindström, E. R. (2017). Development of first-graders’ word reading skills: for whom can dynamic assessment tell us more? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(1), 95–112. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219415599343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Bryant, J. D. (2006). Selecting at-risk readers in first grade for early intervention: A two-year longitudinal study of decision rules and procedures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 394–409. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.2064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Bouton, B., Gilbert, J. K., Barquero, L. A.,… Crouch, R. C. (2010). Selecting at-risk first-grade readers for early intervention: eliminating false positives and exploring the promise of a two-stage gated screening process. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 327–340. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Elbro, C. (1990). Differences in dyslexia. A study of reading strategies and deficits in a linguistic perspective. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
- Elbro, C. (2005). Literacy acquisition in Danish: A deep orthography in cross-linguistic light. In R. M. Joshi & P. G. Aaron (Eds.), Handbook of orthography and literacy (pp. 31–45). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Fien, H., Smith, J. L. M., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S. K., Nelson, N. J., & Chaparro, E. (2015). An examination of the efficacy of a multitiered intervention on early reading outcomes for first grade students at risk for reading difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(6), 602–621. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219414521664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, L. S., Bouton, B., & Caffrey, E. (2011). The construct and predictive validity of a dynamic assessment of young children learning to read: implications for RTI frameworks. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(4), 339–347. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219411407864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Møller, H. L., Arnbak, E., Petersen, D. K., Poulsen, M., Juul, H., & Elbro, C. (2014). Teknisk rapport om ordblindetesten [Technical report on the dyslexia test]. Retrieved from The Danish Ministry of Education, the Dyslexia Test website: https://ordblindetest.nu/vejleder/pdf/TekniskRapportOrdblindetesten.pdf.
- Petersen, D. B., Allen, M. M., & Spencer, T. D. (2016). Predicting reading difficulty in first grade using dynamic assessment of decoding in early kindergarten: a large-scale longitudinal study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(2), 200–215. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219414538518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Poulsen, M., Nielsen, A.-M. V., Juul, H., & Elbro, C. (2017). Early identification of reading difficulties: a screening strategy that adjusts the sensitivity to the level of prediction accuracy. Dyslexia, 23(3), 251–267. https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.1560.
- Virinkoski, R., Lerkkanen, M. K., Holopainen, L., Eklund, K., & Aro, M. (2017). Teachers’ ability to identify children at early risk for reading difficulties in grade 1. Early Childhood Education Journal. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-017-0883-5.