Phonemic—Morphemic dissociation in university students with dyslexia: an index of reading compensation?
- 851 Downloads
A phonological deficit constitutes a primary cause of developmental dyslexia, which persists into adulthood and can explain some aspects of their reading impairment. Nevertheless, some dyslexic adults successfully manage to study at university level, although very little is currently known about how they achieve this. The present study investigated at both the individual and group levels, whether the development of another oral language skill, namely, morphological knowledge, can be preserved and dissociated from the development of phonological knowledge. Reading, phonological, and morphological abilities were measured in 20 dyslexic and 20 non-dyslexic university students. The results confirmed the persistence of deficits in phonological but not morphological abilities, thereby revealing a dissociation in the development of these two skills. Moreover, the magnitude of the dissociation correlated with reading level. The outcome supports the claim that university students with dyslexia may compensate for phonological weaknesses by drawing on morphological knowledge in reading.
KeywordsDissociation Morpheme awareness Phoneme awareness University students with dyslexia
The authors gratefully acknowledge Jennifer Martin for having allowed us to use her materials and Mélody Zira for her help in testing participants. In addition, we would like to thank all the participants in this study. Special thanks are due to Professor John R. Crawford for giving us permission to use and disseminate his single-case study method. Finally, we would also like to thank Florence Poracchia-George (CERTA, Salvator Hospital Marseille, France) for helping with the recruitment of dyslexic participants.
- American Psychiatric Society (2013) ‘Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).’ <http://www.dsm5.org/Pages/Default.aspx> (accessed 10 July 2014).
- Anglin, J. (1993). Vocabulary development: a morphological analysis. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58(10, Serial No. 238).Google Scholar
- Boets, B., Op de Beeck, H. P., Vandermosten, M., Scott, S. K., Gillebert, C. R., Mantini, D., Bulthé, J., Sunaert, S., Wouters, J., & Ghesquière, P. (2013). Intact but less accessible phonetic representations in adults with dyslexia. Science, 342(6163), 1251–1254.Google Scholar
- Carlisle, J. F. (1995). Morphological awareness and early reading achievement. In L. B. Feldman (Ed.), Morphological aspects of language processing (pp. 189–209). Hillsdale: NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Casalis, S., Mathiot, E., Bécavin, A. S., & Colé, P. (2003). Conscience morphologique chez des lecteurs tout venant et en difficultés. Silexicales, 3, 57–66.Google Scholar
- Colé, P., Casalis, S., Dufayard, C. (2012). Logiciel Morphorem. Isbergues, Ortho-Editions.Google Scholar
- Deacon, S. H., Tong, X., & Mimeau, C. (in press). Morphological and semantic processing in developmental dyslexia across languages: a theoretical and empirical review. In C. Perfetti & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Dyslexia across languages and writing systems: a handbook. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1981). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised.Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
- Dunn, L. M., Theriault-Whalen, C. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1993). Echelle de vocabulaire en images Peabody, adaptation française. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Psycan.Google Scholar
- Elbro, C. (1989). Morphological awareness in dyslexia. In C. Von Euler, I. Lundberg, & G. Lennerstrand (Eds.), Brain and reading: structural and functional anomalies in developmental dyslexia with special reference to interactions, memory functions, linguistic processes and visual analysis in reading (pp. 189–209). London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
- Elbro, C. (1986). Morphemes in the reading process. In K. Trondhjem (Ed.), Aspects in reading processes—with special regards to the education of hearing-impaired students. Twelvth Danavox Symposium (pp. 167–185). Copenhagen: Danavox.Google Scholar
- Elbro, C., King, M., Rown, D., & Oakhill, J. (2016). How morphological knowledge can affect the process of word decoding. Porto, Portugal: Paper presented at the Twenty-Third Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading.Google Scholar
- Fowler, A. E., & Liberman, I. Y. (1995). The role of phonology and orthography in morphological awareness. In L. B. Feldman (Ed.), Morphological aspects of language processing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Gombert, J. E. (1990). Le développement métalinguistique. Paris: PUF.Google Scholar
- Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. (1989). The interpretation of studies using the reading level design. Journal of Reading Behavior, 21, 413–424.Google Scholar
- Guo, Y., Roehrig, A. D., & Williams, R. S. (2011). The relation of morphological awareness and syntactic awareness to adults’ reading comprehension: is vocabulary knowledge a mediating variable? Journal of Literacy Research: A Publication of the Literacy Research Association, 43, 159–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lefavrais, P. (2005). Alouette-R. Paris: ECPA.Google Scholar
- Martin, J., Frauenfelder, U. H., & Colé, P. (2013). Morphological awareness in dyslexic university students. Applied Psycholinguistics, 1–21.Google Scholar
- Quémart, P., & Casalis, S. (2013). Visual processing of derivational morphology in children with developmental dyslexia: Insights from masked priming. Applied Psycholinguistics (pp. 1–32).Google Scholar
- Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1995). Raven manual: Coloured progressive matrices. Oxford, UK: Oxford Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
- Rey-Debove, J. (1984). Le domaine de la morphologie lexicale [The domain of lexical morphology. Cahiers de Lexicologie, 45, 3–19.Google Scholar
- Rüsseler, J., Becker, P., Johannes, S., & Münte, T. F. (2007). Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study. BMC Neuroscience, 8, 52.Google Scholar
- Sprenger-Charolles, L., & Colé, P. (2003). Lecture et dyslexie. Paris, Dunod.Google Scholar
- Sprenger-Charolles, L., Colé, P., Béchennec, D., & Kipffer-Piquard, A. (2005). French normative data on reading and related skills from EVALEC, a new computerized battery of tests (end grade 1, grade 2, grade 3, and grade 4). Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 55, 157–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar