Advertisement

Exposure to respirable particles and TVOC in underground parking garages under different types of ventilation and their associated health effects

  • Hyeon-Ju Oh
  • Jong-Ryeul SohnEmail author
  • Jae-Seung Roh
  • Jongbok KimEmail author
Article
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Vehicle-induced pollutants in closed underground parking garages represent a major environmental issue influencing human health. In this study, the exposure to particulate matter (PM10, PM4, and PM2.5) and health risk assessments were analyzed using the lifetime average daily doses (LADDs) and cancer risks for selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ventilation types and traffic volumes were used as parameters to characterize variations of the PM and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). In the investigated underground parking garage, the mass concentrations of PM10, PM4, and PM2.5 were 107.2–213.6, 78.4–138.3, and 56.2–102.4 μg m−3, respectively, and TVOC concentrations ranged from 523.0 to 1064.0 μg m−3 during the summer and winter seasons. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations during the daytime were higher than those measured at night, while no significant difference was observed between day and night for TVOC concentrations. The linear regressions for TVOC and traffic volume show that TVOC concentrations increased with increasing traffic. Among the I/O ratios for PM investigated during summer and winter, the only statistically significant difference was observed between natural and mechanical ventilation in parking garages. For all generated PMs, 72.2–80.1% of the aerosol deposition occurred in the head airways, while 4.8–5.1% of the total was deposited in the alveola and 2.5% in the tracheobronchial regions. The data presented herein suggest that, depending on ventilation types, the highest respirable particles generate in underground parking garage and deposit in all respiratory regions. The estimated cancer risks for car park users and occupational staff were determined, and possible and probable risks were measured.

Keywords

Indoor air quality Underground parking garage Ventilation efficiency Coefficient of determination 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2018R1A6A1A03025761, NRF-2018R1A6A3A11048705).

References

  1. Abualqumboz MS, Mohammed NI, Malakahmad A, Nazif AN (2016) Investigating indoor concentrations of PM10 in an underground loading dock in Malaysia. Air Qual Atmos Health 10:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam N, Kohal J, RIiffa S (1994) Effect of ventilation rate on deposition of aerosol particles on materials. Build Serv Eng Res Technol 15:185–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Assimakopoulos VD, Bekiari T, Pateraki S, Maggos T, Stamatis P, Nicolopoulou P, Assimakopoulos MN (2018) Assessing personal exposure to PM using data from an integrated indoor-outdoor experiment in Athens-Greece. Sci Total Environ 636:1303–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batterman S, Hatzivasilis G, Jia C (2006) Concentrations and emissions of gasoline and other vapors from residential vehicle garages. Atmosp Environ 40:1828–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buonanno G, Marks GB, Morawska L (2013) Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects. Environ Pollut 180:246–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carrilho da Graça G (2018) A technical note on simplified modeling of turbulent mixing in wind-driven single sided ventilation. Build Environ 131:12–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. CIA (2015) The World Factbook - Life Expectancy. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/download/download-2015/index.html
  8. Coaffee J (2008) Risk, resilience, and environmentally sustainable cities. Energy Policy 36:4633–4638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Demir A (2015) Investigation of air quality in the underground and aboveground multi-storey car parks in terms of exhaust emissions. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 195:2601–2611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dhawan S, Sebastian A, Siby J (2018) Health risk assessment of workers in underground parking due to exposure to CO and VOC. Int J Eng Technol Sci Res 5:1388–1391Google Scholar
  11. Fromme H, Diemer J, Dietrich S, Cyrys J, Lang W, Kiranoglu M, Twardella D (2008) chemical and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) in school classrooms and outdoor air. Atmos Environ 42:6597–6605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Geens A, Snelson D, Ryan J, Littlewood J (2006) Ventilation performance for spaces where smoking is permitted: a review of previous work and field study results. Build Serv Eng Res Technol 27:235–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghio AJ (2004) Biological effects of Utah Valley ambient air particles in humans: a review. J Aerosol Med 17:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glorennec P, Bonvallot N, Mandin C, Goupil G, Pernelet-Joly V, Millet M, Filleul L, Le Moullec Y, Alary R (2008) Is a quantitative risk assessment of air quality in underground parking garages possible? Indoor Air 18:283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guo H, Lee SC, Chan LY, Li WM (2004) Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in different indoor environments. Environ Res 94:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hansen SF, Michelson ES, Kamper A, Borling P, Stuer-Lauridsen F, Baun A (2008) Categorization framework to aid exposure assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products. Ecotoxicology 17:438–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ho JC, Xue H, Tay KL (2004) A field study on determination of carbon monoxide level and thermal environment in an underground car park. Build Environ 39:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hwang SH, Park WM (2019) Indoor air quality assessment with respect to culturable airborne bacteria, total volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, PM10, CO2, NO2, and O3 in underground subway stations and parking lots. Air Qual Atmos Health 12:435–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. International Agency for Research on Cancer 1996:IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. International Agency for Research on CancerGoogle Scholar
  20. Jenkins P, Phillips T, Tulberg E, Hui S (1992) Activity patterns of Californians—use of and proximity to indoor pollutant sources. Atmos Environ 26:2141–2148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim SR, Dominici F, Buckley TJ (2007) Concentrations of vehicle-related air pollutants in an urban parking garage. Environ Res 105:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kong KH, Chong WT, Koh VL (2019) Human behaviour-dependent and variable-flow-reversible mechanical ventilation system design in an underground parking facility. Indoor and Built Environment.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1420326X19832955 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kukadia V, Warriner D (1997) Ventilation and air pollution: buildings located in urban and city centres. Build Serv Eng Res Technol 18:B11–B18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lehnert M, Pesch B, Lotz A, Pelzer J, Kendzia B, Gawrych K, Heinze E, Van Gelder R, Punkenburg E, Weiss T, Mattenklott M, Hahn JU, Mohlmann C, Berges M, Hartwig A, Bruning T, Weldox Study Group (2012) Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume. Ann Occup Hyg 56:557–567Google Scholar
  25. Li Z, Wen Q, Zhang R (2017) Sources, health effects and control strategies of indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5): a review. Sci Total Environ 586:610–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu J, Yang X, Jiang Q, Qiu J, Liu Y (2019a) Occupants’ thermal comfort and perceived air quality in natural ventilated classrooms during cold days. Build Environ 158:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu Z, Yin H, Ma S, Jin G, Gao J, Ding W (2019b) On-site assessments on variations of PM2.5, PM10, CO2 and TVOC concentrations in naturally ventilated underground parking garages with traffic volume. Environ Pollut 247:626–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Martins V, Moreno T, Minguillon MC, Amato F, de Miguel E, Capdevila M, Querol X (2015) Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system. Sci Total Environ 511:711–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mosley RB, Greenwell DJ, Sparks LE, Guo Z, Tucker WG, Fortmann R, Whitfield C (2001) Penetration of ambient fine particles into the indoor environment. Aerosol Sci Technol 34:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nazarenko Y, Zhen H, Han T, Lioy PJ, Mainelis G (2012) Nanomaterial inhalation exposure from nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders: a quantitative assessment. J Nanopart Res 14:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oeder S, Dietrich S, Weichenmeier I, Schober W, Pusch G, Jorres RA, Schierl R, Nowak D, Fromme H, Behrendt H, Buters JT (2012) Toxicity and elemental composition of particulate matter from outdoor and indoor air of elementary schools in Munich, Germany. Indoor Air 22:148–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Papakonstantinou K, Chaloulakou A, Duci N, Vlachakis NCN (2003a) Air quality in an underground garage: computational and experimental investigation of ventilation effectiveness. Energy Buildings 35:933–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Papakonstantinou K, Chaloulakou A, Duci A, Vlachakis N, Markatos N (2003b) Air quality in an underground garage: computational and experimental investigation of ventilation effectiveness. Energy Buildings 35:933–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pekey B, Bozkurt Z, Pekey H, Dogan G, Zararsiz A, Efe N, Tuncel G (2010) Indoor/outdoor concentrations and elemental composition of PM10/PM2.5 in urban/industrial areas of Kocaeli City, Turkey. Indoor Air 20:112–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Puskar M, Jahnatek A, Kadarova J, Soltesova M, Kovanic L, Krivosudska J (2019) Environmental study focused on the suitability of vehicle certifications using the new European driving cycle (NEDC) with regard to the affair “dieselgate” and the risks of NOx emissions in urban destinations. Air Qual Atmos Health 12:251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silva S, Monteiro A, Russo MA, Valente J, Alves C, Nunes T, Pio C, Miranda AI (2016) Modelling indoor air quality: validation and sensitivity. Air Qual Atmos Health 10:643–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sundell J, Levin H, Nazaroff WW, Cain WS (2010) Ventilation rates and health: multidisciplinary review of the scientific literature. Indoor Air 21:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tunsaringkarn T, Prueksasit T, Morknoy D, Sawatsing R, Chinveschakitvanich V, Rungsiyothin A, Zapaun K (2015) Indoor air assessment, health risks, and their relationship among elderly residents in urban warrens of Bangkok, Thailand. Air Qual Atmos Health 8:603–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. U.S.EPA (2011) Exposure factors handbook. EPA/600/R-090/052F. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang X, Bi X, Sheng G, Fu J (2006) Chemical composition and sources of PM10 and PM2.5 aerosols in Guangzhou, China. Environ Monit Assess 119:425–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang B, Lau Y-S, Huang Y, Organ B, Lee S-C, Ho K-F (2019) Investigation of factors affecting the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles. Air Qual Atmos Health 12:1113–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yan Y, He Q, Song Q, Guo L, He Q, Wang X (2016) Exposure to hazardous air pollutants in underground car parks in Guangzhou, China. Air Qual Atmos Health 10:555–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yang X, Zhao Z, Hua R, Su X, Ma L, Chen Z (2019) Simulation study on the influence of urban underground parking development on underlying surface and urban local thermal environment. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 89:133–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhao Y, Song X, Wang Y, Zhao J, Zhu K (2017) Seasonal patterns of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 concentrations in a naturally ventilated residential underground garage. Build Environ 124:294–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhu Y, Hinds WC, Krudysz M, Kuhn T, Froines J, Sioutas C (2005) Penetration of freeway ultrafine particles into indoor environments. J Aerosol Sci 36:303–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public Health SciencesKorea UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringKumoh National Institute of TechnologyGumiSouth Korea
  3. 3.Present address: Department of Environmental Sciences, RutgersThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations