Advertisement

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 635–642 | Cite as

The effect of speed bumps and humps on the concentrations of CO, NO and NO2 in ambient air

  • T. JanuševičiusEmail author
  • R. Grubliauskas
Article

Abstract

Traffic-calming measures act as the instruments to reduce the speed of vehicles. They make a major contribution to road safety; however, on the other hand, air pollution is more likely to occur due to the fact that motor vehicles use brakes and accelerate more frequently. The study reviewed two types of traffic-calming devices, that is, trapezoid-shaped speed humps made of asphalt and plastic circular speed bumps. The obtained results showed an increase in the concentrations of NO, NO2 and CO found in the pollutants emitted from the vehicles approaching speed bumps/humps compared to the concentrations of the same types of pollutants at the check points. As for trapezoidal speed humps, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide increased on average by 1.8 times, that of nitrogen monoxide by 4.3 times and that of carbon monoxide by 2.2 times. Meanwhile, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at circular plastic speed bumps rose on average by 2.5 times, that of nitric monoxide by 5.0 times and that of carbon monoxide by 3.2 times.

Keywords

Speed bumps Speed humps Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Pollution caused by road transport 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahn K, Rakha H (2009) A field evaluation case study of the environmental and energy impacts of traffic calming. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ 14:411–424.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2009.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldauf R, Watkins N, Heist D et al (2009) Near-road air quality monitoring: factors affecting network design and interpretation of data. Air Qual Atmos Health 2:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baltrėnas P, Vaitiekūnas P, Mincevič I (2004) Investigation on the impact of transport exhaust emissions on the air. J Environ Eng Landsc Manag 12:3–11.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16486897.2004.9636809 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baltrėnas HP, Januševičius T, Chlebnikovas A (2017) Research into the impact of speed bumps on particulate matter air pollution. Meas J Int Meas Confed 100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2016.12.042
  5. Boulter PG, Latham S, Ainge M (1999) Driving cycles for measuring passenger car emissions on roads with traffic calming measures. Sci Total Environ 235:77–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00193-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Daham B, Andrews GE, Li H et al (2005) Quantifying the effects of traffic calming on emissions using on-road measurements. SAE Technical Papers, DetroitGoogle Scholar
  7. De Borger B, Proost S (2013) Traffic externalities in cities: the economics of speed bumps, low emission zones and city bypasses. J Urban Econ 76:53–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2013.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ewing R (2001) Impacts of traffic calming. Transp Q 55:33–45Google Scholar
  9. Franco V, Kousoulidou M, Muntean M et al (2013) Road vehicle emission factors development: a review. Atmos Environ 70:84–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghafghazi G, Hatzopoulou M (2015) Simulating the air quality impacts of traffic calming schemes in a dense urban neighborhood. Transp Res PART D 35:11–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2014.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Haworth N, Symmons M (2001) the Relationship Between Fuel Economy and Safety OutcomesGoogle Scholar
  12. Höglund, Paul G; Niittymaki J (1999) Estimating vehicle emissions and air pollution related to driving patterns and traffic calming. In: Urban transport Systems. pp 1–11Google Scholar
  13. Int Panis L, Broekx S, Liu R (2006) Modelling instantaneous traffic emission and the influence of traffic speed limits. Sci Total Environ 371:270–285.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.08.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Joumard R, Jost P, Hickman J, Hassel D (1995) Hot passenger car emissions modelling as a function of instantaneous speed and acceleration. Sci Total Environ 169:167–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04645-H CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kordani AA, Molan AM, Monajjem S, Sadeghvaziri E (2014) Simulation modeling of dynamic response of vehicles to different types of speed control humps. In: T and DI congress 2014: Planes, trains, and automobiles - proceedings of the 2nd Transportation and Development Institute CongressGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee G, Joo S, Oh C, Choi K (2013) An evaluation framework for traffic calming measures in residential areas. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ 25:68–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2013.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Litman T (1999) Traffic calming: benefits, costs and equity impactsGoogle Scholar
  18. Lu W, Jiang Y, Chen S et al (2016) Multi-objective traffic calming measures for roadways passing through rural communities. Adv Transp Stud 38:59–74.  https://doi.org/10.4399/978885489209505 Google Scholar
  19. Luoma J, Sivak M (2012) Interactions of environmental and safety measures for sustainable road transportation. Eur Transp Res Rev 4:189–199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12544-012-0078-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Molan AM, Kordani AA (2014) Optimization of speed hump profiles based on vehicle dynamic performance modeling. J Transp Eng 140:04014035.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000686 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Owen B (2005) Air quality impacts of speed-restriction zones for road traffic. Sci Total Environ 340:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Palmgren F, Berkowicz R, Ziv A, Hertel O (1999) Actual car fleet emissions estimated from urban air quality measurements and street pollution models. Sci Total Environ 235:101–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00196-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rothman L, Macpherson A, Buliung R et al (2015) Installation of speed humps and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Toronto, Canada: a quasi-experimental study. BMC Public Health 15.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2116-4
  24. Salau TAO, Adeyefa AO, Oke SA (2004) Vehicle speed control using road bumps. Transport 19:130–136.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16484142.2004.9637965 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Takeshita T (2012) Assessing the co-benefits of CO2 mitigation on air pollutants emissions from road vehicles. Appl Energy 97:225–237.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.12.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tester JM, Rutherford GW, Wald Z, Rutherford MW (2004) A matched case-control study evaluating the effectiveness of speed humps in reducing child pedestrian injuries. Am J Public Health 94:646–650.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.94.4.646 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vaitiekūnas P, Banaityte R (2007) Modeling of motor transport exhaust pollutant dispersion. J Environ Eng Landsc Manag 15:39–46.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16486897.2007.9636906 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang K, Batterman S (2013) Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic. Sci Total Environ 450–451:307–316.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute of Environmental ProtectionVilnius Gediminas Technical UniversityVilniusLithuania

Personalised recommendations