Impact of long-term exposure to local PM10 on children’s blood pressure: a Chinese national cross-sectional study
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The evidence of the effect of long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) on children’s blood pressure is insufficient. We collected the data of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) for 71,763 children aged 7 to 18 from 30 cities from 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students’ Construction and Health, and the data of local annual average concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2, annual average of relative humidity, and ambient temperature from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China. We used the generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate the associations between PM10 exposure and children’s blood pressure. We found that there was a distinct geographic variation in the annual average concentrations of PM10, ranging from 40 μg/m3 in Haikou to 155 μg/m3 in Lanzhou. After adjusting for individual characteristics, social economic conditions, ambient temperature, relative humidity, NO2, and SO2, we found that the increase of PM10 was associated with increase of SBP and DBP in Chinese children. A 100-μg/m3 increase of PM10 was associated with 0.88 mmHg (95% CI 0.71, 1.05) higher SBP and 0.91 mmHg (95% CI 0.77, 1.06) higher DBP (p < 0.001). Consistent associations of SBP or DBP with PM10 were found in both girls and boys. We also found a larger estimated effect of PM10 on SBP and DBP in overweight children than that in normal ones. Public health policy for improving the air quality could be helpful to protect children’s cardiovascular health.
KeywordsPM10 Blood pressure Children Long-term exposure
Body mass index
Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health
Disability adjusted life years
Diastolic blood pressure
Systolic blood pressure
Generalized additive model
Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm
We thank WK Liao, WH Xing, and X Zhang for their permission on accessing the data of 2010 CNSSCH. We also appreciate the participators of the survey for their cooperation.
QL, YG, and HJW conceived the study and its design. QL performed the data analysis and drafted the initial manuscript. YG and HJW modified the manuscript. YS and JYS contributed to the data collection. JM contributed to obtain the permission on accessing the data and manuscript preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Data collection was jointly supported by the Ministry of Education, General Administration of Sport, the Ministry of Health, State Ethnic Affairs Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology, and Ministry of Finance, People’s Republic of China. Data analyses of the present study were supported by grant from National Science Foundation of China (81573170). YG is supported by the Career Development Fellowship of Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (#APP1107107).
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
The study project was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee of the University of Queensland (#2011001199).
Consent for publication
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