Advertisement

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 683–694 | Cite as

Seasonal variation and health risk assessment of atmospheric PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a classic agglomeration industrial city, central China

  • Tianpeng Hu
  • Jiaquan Zhang
  • Xinli Xing
  • Changlin Zhan
  • Li Zhang
  • Hongxia Liu
  • Ting Liu
  • Jingru Zheng
  • Ruizhen Yao
  • Junji Cao
Article

Abstract

Sixty atmospheric sample concentrations of PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 were analyzed in distinct seasonal variations from a classic agglomeration industrial city. The concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 6.96 to 260.06 μg/m3 with an average of 177.05 μg/m3. Only 38% of the sampling days were superior to the 24-h limit value (75 μg/m3) of ambient air quality standards (AAQs), and the samples from autumn and winter exceeded the limit value. The total PAHs ranged from 1.51 to 44.51 ng/m3 with an average of 10.65 ng/m3. The highest and lowest concentrations of total PAHs appeared in winter and summer with averages of 22.56 and 4.03 ng/m3, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs) (4-, 5-, 6-ring PAHs) were significantly and negatively correlated with temperature and water-soluble total organic carbon (WTOC), and significantly correlated with water-soluble total nitrogen (WTN). The 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs were dominant, especially those of 4-ring PAHs, which were above 30% of the total PAHs in each season. Source apportionment indicated that PM2.5-bound PAHs in Huangshi were mainly derived from pyrogenic source, vehicle exhaust, coal combustion, and biomass burning. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) showed no potential carcinogenic risk from the PM2.5-bound BaP-eq. ILCRs in winter were the highest, and the risks for adults were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those for children.

Keywords

PAHs Particulate matter (PM) Industrial city Seasonal variations Health risk assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully thank Yong Zhang for collecting the sample.

Funding information

The research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC0212602), the Hubei Universities of Outstanding Young Scientific and Technological Innovation Team Plans (T201729), the Special Scientific Research Funds for National Basic Research Program of China (2013FY112700), the Outstanding Youth Science and Technology Innovation Team Projects of Hubei Polytechnic University (13xtz07), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Minal Environmental Pollution Control and Remedition in Hubei Province (201702).

Supplementary material

11869_2018_575_MOESM1_ESM.docx (410 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 409 kb)

References

  1. Augusto S, Máguas C, Matos J, Pereira MJ, Branquinho C (2010) Lichens as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: a comparison with soil, air and pine needles. Environ Pollut 158:483–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandowe BA, Meusel H, Huang RJ, Ho K, Cao J, Hoffmann T et al (2014) PM2.5-bound oxygenated PAHs, nitro-PAHs and parent-PAHs from the atmosphere of a Chinese megacity: seasonal variation, sources and cancer risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 473-474:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bari MA, Baumbach G, Kuch B, Scheffknecht G (2010) Particle-phase concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of rural residential areas in southern Germany. Air Qual Atmos Health 3:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beyer A, Wania F, Gouin T, Mackay D, Matthies M (2003) Temperature dependence of the characteristic travel distance. Environ Sci Technol 37:766–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blaszczyk E, Rogula-Kozlowska W, Klejnowski K, Fulara I, Mielzynska-Svach D (2017) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bound to outdoor and indoor airborne particles (PM2.5) and their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in Silesian kindergartens, Poland. Air Qual Atmos Health 10:389–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Callen MS, Iturmendi A, Lopez JM (2014) Source apportionment of atmospheric PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a PMF receptor model. Assessment of potential risk for human health. Environ Pollut 195:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen F, Hu W, Zhong Q (2013) Emissions of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Fu Gui-shan Tunnel of Nanjing, China. Atmos Res 124:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen SC, Liao CM (2006) Health risk assessment on human exposed to environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution sources. Sci Total Environ 366:112–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen Y, Li X, Zhu T, Han Y, Lv D (2017) PM2.5-bound PAHs in three indoor and one outdoor air in Beijing: concentration, source and health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 586:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Correia AW, Pope CA, Dockery DW, Wang Y, Ezzati M, Dominici F (2013) Effect of air pollution control on life expectancy in the United States an analysis of 545 US counties for the period from 2000 to 2007. Epidemiology 24:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Decesari S, Facchini MC, Fuzzi S, Tagliavini E (2000) Characterization of water-soluble organic compounds in atmospheric aerosol: a new approach. J Geophys Res-Atmos 105:1481–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. EU (2008) Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe. European Union. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/standards.htm. Accessed 8 January 2018
  13. Fraser MP, Cass GR, Simoneit BR, Rasmussen R (1997) Air quality model evaluation data for organics. 4. C2-C36 non-aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 31:2356–2367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. GB3095-2012 (2012) National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China. Ministry of Environmental Protection and General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China. http://kjs.mep.gov.cn/hjbhbz/bzwb/dqhjbh/dqhjzlbz/201203/t20120302_224165.shtml. Accessed 8 January 2018
  15. Geng NB, Wang J, Xu YF, Zhang WD, Chen C, Zhang RQ (2013) PM2.5 in an industrial district of Zhengzhou, China: chemical composition and source apportionment. Particuology 11:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Günther T, Dornberger U, Fritsche W (1996) Effects of ryegrass on biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Chemosphere 33:203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hu TP, Zhang JQ, Ye C, Zhang L, Xing XL, Zhang Y et al (2017) Status, source and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil from the water-level-fluctuation zone of the three gorges reservoir, China. J Geochem Explor 172:20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Karar K, Gupta AK (2006) Seasonal variations and chemical characterization of ambient PM10 at residential and industrial sites of an. Urban region of Kolkata (Calcutta), India. Atmos Res 81:36–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khalili NR, Scheff PA, Holsen TM (1995) PAH source fingerprints for coke ovens, diesel and, gasoline engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emissions. Atmos Environ 29:533–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khan MF, Latif MT, Lim CH, Amil N, Jaafar SA, Dominick D, Mohd Nadzir MS, Sahani M, Tahir NM (2015) Seasonal effect and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5. Atmos Environ 106:178–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim KH, Kabir E, Kabir S (2015) A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter. Environ Int 74:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lai IC, Lee CL, Zeng KY, Huang HC (2011) Seasonal variation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons along the Kaohsiung coast. J Environ Manag 92:2029–2037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Larsen RK, Baker JE (2003) Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: a comparison of three methods. Environ Sci Technol 37:1873–1881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee JY, Shin HJ, Bae SY, Kim YP, Kang C-H (2008) Seasonal variation of particle size distributions of PAHs at Seoul, Korea. Air Qual Atmos Health 1:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Leitte AM, Schlink U, Herbarth O, Wiedensohler A, Pan XC, Hu M et al (2011) Size-segregated particle number concentrations and respiratory emergency room visits in Beijing, China. Environ Health Perspect 119:508–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li X, Kong S, Yin Y, Li L, Yuan L, Li Q, Xiao H, Chen K (2016) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 around 2013 Asian Youth Games period in Nanjing. Atmos Res 174-175:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu J, Man R, Ma S, Li J, Wu Q, Peng J (2015) Atmospheric levels and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to PM2.5 in Guangzhou, China. Mar Pollut Bull 100:134–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nisbet ICT, Lagoy PK (1992) Toxic equivalency factors (Tefs) for polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons (Pahs). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 16:290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Niu ZC, Zhou WJ, Wu SG, Cheng P, Lu XF, Xiong XH, Du H, Fu Y, Wang G (2016) Atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 traced by Delta C-14 in Beijing and Xiamen, China: temporal variations, inland/coastal differences and influencing factors. Environ Sci Technol 50:5474–5480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Novakov T, Penner JE (1993) Large contribution of organic aerosols to cloud-condensation-nuclei concentrations. Nature 365:823–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Panther BC, Hooper MA, Tapper NJ (1999) A comparison of air particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some tropical and temperate urban environments. Atmos Environ 33:4087–4099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR, Simoneit BR (1993) Sources of fine organic aerosol. 2. Noncatalyst and catalyst-equipped automobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Environ Sci Technol 27:636–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sadiktsis I, Bergvall C, Johansson C, Westerholm R (2012) Automobile tires: a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment. Environ Sci Technol 46:3326–3334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shulman ML, Jacobson MC, Carlson RJ, Synovec RE, Young TE (1996) Dissolution behavior and surface tension effects of organic compounds in nucleating cloud droplets. Geophys Res Lett 23:277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tao J, Zhang LM, Engling G, Zhang RJ, Yang YH, Cao JJ, Zhu C, Wang Q, Luo L (2013) Chemical composition of PM2.5 in an urban environment in Chengdu, China: importance of springtime dust storms and biomass burning. Atmos Res 122:270–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wania F, Mackay D (1995) A global distribution model for persistent organic-chemicals. Sci Total Environ 160-61:211–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wania F, Mackay D (1996) Tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 30:A390–A396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. WHO (2000) Air quality guidelines for Europe, 2nd ed. WHO Regional Officefor Europe, Copenhagen. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/107335. Accessed 8 January 2018
  39. WHO (2005) Air quality guidelines global update: particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/107823. Accessed 8 January 2018
  40. Xing XL, Qi SH, Zhang JQ, Wu CX, Zhang Y, Yang D, Odhiambo JO (2011) Spatial distribution and source diagnosis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Chengdu Economic Region, Sichuan Province, western China. J Geochem Explor 110:146–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xing XL, Zhang Y, Yang D, Zhang JQ, Chen W, Wu CX, Liu H, Qi S (2016) Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric bulk deposition along a plain-mountain transect in western China. Atmos Environ 139:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Xu HM, Ho SSH, Gao ML, Cao JJ, Guinot B, Ho KF, Long X, Wang J, Shen Z, Liu S, Zheng C, Zhang Q (2016) Microscale spatial distribution and health assessment of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nine communities in Xi'an, China. Environ Pollut 218:1065–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yang GH, Wang Y, Zeng YX, Gao GF, Liang XF, Zhou MG, Wan X, Yu S, Jiang Y, Naghavi M, Vos T, Wang H, Lopez AD, Murray CJL (2013) Rapid health transition in China, 1990-2010: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet 381:1987–2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yang H, Li QF, Yu JZ (2003) Comparison of two methods for the determination of water-soluble organic carbon in atmospheric particles. Atmos Environ 37:865–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Vingarzan R, Mitchell RH, Goyette D, Sylvestre S (2002) PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Org Geochem 33:489–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang F, Wang ZW, Cheng HR, Lv XP, Gong W, Wang XM, Zhang G (2015a) Seasonal variations and chemical characteristics of PM(2.5) in Wuhan, central China. Sci Total Environ 518-519:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang JQ, Qu CK, Qi SH, Cao JJ, Zhan CL, Xing XL, Xiao Y, Zheng J, Xiao W (2015b) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China. Environ Geochem Health 37:891–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang JQ, Zhan CL, Liu HX, Liu T, Yao RZ, Hu TP, Xiao W, Xing X, Xu H, Cao J (2016) Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Iron and black carbon within street dust from a steel industrial city, central China. Aerosol Air Qual Res 16:2452–2461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang YX, Tao S (2008) Seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in China. Environ Pollut 156:657–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hubei key Laboratory of Mine Environmental Pollution Control and RemediationHubei Polytechnic UniversityHuangshiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, School of Environmental StudiesChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Earth EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations