Short-term effects of particulate matter exposure on daily mortality in Thailand: a case-crossover study
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Several studies have shown seasonal variations between particulate matter (PM) exposure and daily mortality. However, few studies have focused on age differences on the risk of mortality from PM10, in addition to seasonal effects. Therefore, we attempted to estimate the association between PM10 and daily mortality in Thailand, while accounting for seasonal variations and age differences. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used in this study. Environmental, meteorological, and mortality data of 12 provinces in Thailand between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed to estimate the association between PM10 and daily mortality attributed to non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory causes and age differences. The conditional logistic regression was employed to determine whether the risk of mortality differed by seasons and age groups. We found an association between cumulative exposure to PM10 and increased risk of mortality attributed to non-accidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases. During the study period, cold months (November to February) [1.75% (95% CI 1.20, 2.31)] had a stronger effect of increased 10 μg/m3 in PM10 with 1 ppb in O3 on non-accidental mortality than hot (March to June) [0.67% (95% CI 0.15, 1.20)] and wet (July to October) [− 1.00% (95% CI − 1.99, − 0.01)] months. However, increasing of age did not modify any associations between PM10 and mortality. An association between PM10 exposure and daily mortality was observed. Age difference was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality.
KeywordsParticulate matter Mortality Case-crossover Seasonal effect Age difference effect
Authors thank the Bureau of Policy and Strategy, Ministry of Public Health, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources, and Environment and Meteorological Department, Ministry of Science and Technology, Thailand, for supporting data in this study. We also would like to acknowledge Dr. Kriangkrai Lerdthusnee for checking over the final draft.
This research was funded by Chulalongkorn Academic Advancement into Its second Century Project (CUAA Project).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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