Advertisement

How have the characteristics of air quality in a typical large Chinese city changed between 2011 and 2017?

  • Haibo Ji
  • Qin’geng WangEmail author
  • Yiyong Yu
  • Yan Lu
  • Xin Qian
Article
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

Great efforts have been made to control air pollution in China, and these have markedly changed air quality. Here, a detailed analysis of changes in air pollution in Nanjingbetween 2011 and 2017 based on hourly concentration measurements of six air pollutants is presented. The concentrations of most of these pollutants have decreased since 2013. This has resulted in the annual proportion of days meeting the new Chinese air quality standards increasing by 17.5%, as well as the proportion of days of severe or strong pollution decreasing by 8.0%. However, the ozone (O3) concentration increased between 2011 and 2017, and the number of days that O3 concentrations exceeded the Chinese standard dramatically increased from 8 days in 2011 to 60 days in 2017. Clearly, O3 has replaced fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as the most frequent dominant pollutant since 2016. Our results indicate that air pollution in Nanjing has evolved from being dominated by primary pollutants to being dominated by secondary pollutants, reflecting interaction of multiple emissions and chemical processes. Current policies and strategies need to be reassessed and modified to deal with interactions between emissions from different sources under variable meteorological conditions.

Keywords

Air quality Evolution characteristics Primary pollutants Secondary pollutants Ozone 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Trudi Semeniuk from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Editing China (www.liwenbianji.cn/ac), for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC0208504), and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2014CB441203).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Chen Y, Xie SD (2014) Characteristics and formation mechanism of a heavy air pollution episode caused by biomass burning in Chengdu, Southwest China. Sci Total Environ 473:507–517.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheng Z, Jiang JK, Fajardo O, Wang SX, Hao JM (2013) Characteristics and health impacts of particulate matter pollution in China (2001-2011). Atmos Environ 65:186–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng Y, He KB, Du ZY, Zheng M, Duan FK, Ma YL (2015) Humidity plays an important role in the PM2.5 pollution in Beijing. Environ Pollut 197:68–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.11.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Han SQ, Wu JH, Zhang YF, Cai ZY, Feng YC, Yao Q, Li XJ, Liu YW, Zhang M (2014) Characteristics and formation mechanism of a winter haze-fog episode in Tianjin, China. Atmos Environ 98:323–330.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Huang K, Zhuang G, Lin Y, Fu JS, Wang Q, Liu T, Zhang R, Jiang Y, Deng C, Fu Q, Hsu NC, Cao B (2012) Typical types and formation mechanisms of haze in an eastern Asia megacity, Shanghai. Atmos Chem Phys 12:105–124.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-105-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Li L, Qian J, Ou CQ, Zhou YX, Guo C, Guo YM (2014) Spatial and temporal analysis of air pollution index and its timescale-dependent relationship with meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China, 2001-2011. Environ Pollut 190:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Li GH, Bei N, Cao J, Wu J, Long X, Feng T, Dai W, Liu S, Zhang Q, Tie X (2017) Widespread and persistent ozone pollution in eastern China during the non-winter season of 2015: observations and source attributions. Atmos Chem Phys 17:2759–2774.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-2759-2017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Liao ZH, Sun JR, Liu J, Guo S, Fan SJ (2018) Long-term trends in ambient particulate matter, chemical composition, and associated health risk and mortality burden in Hong Kong (1995-2016). Air Qual Atmos Health 11:773–783.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-018-0591-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Luo XS et al (2017) Effects of emission control and meteorological parameters on urban air quality showed by the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in China. Fresenius Environ Bull 26:4798–4807Google Scholar
  10. Manju A, Kalaiselvi K, Dhananjayan V, Palanivel M, Banupriya GS, Vidhya MH, Panjakumar K, Ravichandran B (2018) Spatio-seasonal variation in ambient air pollutants and influence of meteorological factors in Coimbatore, southern India. Air Qual Atmos Health 11:1179–1189.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-018-0617-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ministry of Ecological Environment (2011) Technical guideline on environmental monitoring quality management vol HJ 630-2011. Ministry of Ecological Environment of the People’s Republic of China. http://kjs.mee.gov.cn/hjbhbz/bzwb/other/qt/201109/W020120130585014685198.pdf. Accessed 28 Dec 2018
  12. Ministry of Ecological Environment (2012a) Ambient air quality standard vol GB3095-2012. Ministry of Ecological Environment of the People’s Republic of China. http://kjs.mee.gov.cn/hjbhbz/bzwb/dqhjbh/dqhjzlbz/201203/W020120410330232398521.pdf. Accessed 28 Dec 2018
  13. Ministry of Ecological Environment (2012b) Technical regulation on ambient air quality index (on trial) vol HJ 633—2012. Ministry of Ecological Environment of the People’s Republic of China. http://kjs.mee.gov.cn/hjbhbz/bzwb/jcffbz/201203/W020120410332725219541.pdf. Accessed 28 Dec 2018
  14. Ministry of Ecological Environment (2013) Technical regulation for ambient air quality assessment (on trial) vol HJ 663—2013. Ministry of Ecological Environment of the People’s Republic of China. http://kjs.mee.gov.cn/hjbhbz/bzwb/jcffbz/201309/W020131105548549111863.pdf. Accessed 28 Dec 2018
  15. Ministry of Ecological Environment (2018) Ecological environment bulletin of China. Ministry of Ecological Environment of the People’s Republic of China. http://www.mee.gov.cn/hjzl/zghjzkgb/lnzghjzkgb/201805/P020180531534645032372.pdf. Accessed 28 Dec 2018
  16. Nanjing Statistics Bureau (2012) Statistical Yearbook of Nanjing 2011. In. Phoenix Publishing House, Nanjing, China. ISBN: 7550608288Google Scholar
  17. Nanjing Statistics Bureau (2018) Statistical Yearbook of Nanjing 2017. In. China Statistics Press, Beijing, China. ISBN: 978-7-5037-8532-0Google Scholar
  18. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2012) China Statical Yearbook 2011. In. China Statistics Press, Beijing, China. ISBN: 978-7-5037-6351-9Google Scholar
  19. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2014) China Statical Yearbook 2013. In. China Statistics Press, Beijing, China. ISBN: 978-7-5037-7280-1Google Scholar
  20. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2017) National Data, http://data.stats.gov.cn/easyquery.htm?cn=C01. Accessed 28 Dec 2018
  21. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2018) China Statical Yearbook 2017. In. China Statistics Press, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-7-8946-8732-6Google Scholar
  22. Sheng N, Tang UW (2016) The first official city ranking by air quality in China - a review and analysis. Cities 51:139–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2015.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. State Council (2013) Air pollution prevention and control action plan. State Council. http://zfs.mee.gov.cn/hjjj/gjfbdjjzcx/hjczzc/201501/t20150129_295223.shtml. Accessed 28 Dec 2018
  24. Tan JH, Duan JC, Zhen NJ, He KB, Hao JM (2016) Chemical characteristics and source of size-fractionated atmospheric particle in haze episode in Beijing. Atmos Res 167:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang T, Xue LK, Brimblecombe P, Lam YF, Li L, Zhang L (2017) Ozone pollution in China: a review of concentrations, meteorological influences, chemical precursors, and effects. Sci Total Environ 575:1582–1596.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Xu LJ, Zhou JX, Guo Y, Wu TM, Chen TT, Zhong QJ, Yuan D, Chen PY, Ou CQ (2017) Spatiotemporal pattern of air quality index and its associated factors in 31 Chinese provincial capital cities. Air Qual Atmos Health 10:601–609.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-016-0454-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yin DY, Zhao SP, Qu JJ (2017) Spatial and seasonal variations of gaseous and particulate matter pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities, China. Air Qual Atmos Health 10:359–370.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-016-0432-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang QF, Robert C (2012) Toward an environmentally sustainable future: country environmental analysis of the People’s Republic of China. China Financial & Economical Publishing House, Beijing, China. ISBN: 978-7-5095-4085-5Google Scholar
  29. Zhao H, Wang S, Wang W, Liu R, Zhou B (2015) Investigation of ground-level ozone and high-pollution episodes in a megacity of eastern China. PLoS One 10.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131878
  30. Zhao SP, Yu Y, Yin DY, He JJ, Liu N, Qu JJ, Xiao JH (2016) Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center. Environ Int 86:92–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint2015.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zheng B, Tong D, Li M, Liu F, Hong C, Geng G, Li H, Li X, Peng L, Qi J, Yan L, Zhang Y, Zhao H, Zheng Y, He K, Zhang Q (2018) Trends in China’s anthropogenic emissions since 2010 as the consequence of clean air actions. Atmos Chem Phys 18:14095–14111.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-14095-2018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Media B.V., onderdeel van Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haibo Ji
    • 1
  • Qin’geng Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yiyong Yu
    • 1
  • Yan Lu
    • 1
  • Xin Qian
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the EnvironmentNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET)Nanjing University of Information Science & TechnologyNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations