Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 10, Issue 10, pp 1269–1280 | Cite as

Long-term variations of dust storms and associated dustfall and related climate factors in Korea during 1997~2016

  • H. S. KimEmail author
  • Y. S. Chung
  • J. H. Cho


The large-scale transport of dust storms originating from Mongolia and northern China has been observed for dustfall days by meteorological observers in South Korea since 1960. Furthermore, the Korea Centre for Atmospheric Environment Research (KCAER) has been observing dustfall days by using standards of ground-based mass concentrations in central South Korea since 1997. In the spatial distribution, annual dustfall days gradually decreased southeastward in South Korea due to wind speed reduction for the long-range transport of dust storms. During the last 20 years, 19 dustfall days in 1997 were reduced to 3 days in 2016 with a decreasing rate of − 0.8 ± 0.1 day year−1. The warming in northern Mongolia reduced the meridional temperature gradient between Mongolia and northern China. Decreases in the air temperature gradient affect wind speed reduction in the origins of dust storms. A noticeable decrease in PM10 mass concentrations is related to decreases in higher mass concentration days from dustfall in central South Korea during winter and spring. During summer and fall, the decreasing trend of TSP is related to the high level of moisture of the Northwest Pacific air masses.


Dustfall days with dust storm Long-term variations Meridional temperature gradient TSP PM10 PM2.5 



This study was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2016-5010.


  1. Beijing Youth Daily (2017) Dusty days in Beijing. May 5:2017Google Scholar
  2. Brohan P, Kennedy JJ, Harris I, Tett SFB, Jones PD (2006) Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new data set from 1850. J Geophys Res 111:D12106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chung YS (1992) On the observations of yellow sand in Korea. Atmos Environ 26A:2743–2749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chung YS, Kim HS, Jugder D, Natsagdorj L, Chen SJ (2003) On sand and duststorms and associated significant dustfall observed in Cheongju-Chongwon, Korea during 1997-2000. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 3:5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fan K, Wang H (2004) Antarctic oscillation and the dust weather frequency in North China. Geophys Res Let 31:10201–10205Google Scholar
  6. Gao T, Yu X, Ma Q, Li H, Li X, Si Y (2003) Climatology and trends of the temporal and spatial distribution of sandstorms in Inner Mongolia. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 3:51–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gao T, Xu Y, Bo Y, Yu X (2006) Synoptic characteristics of dust storms observed in Inner Mongolia and their influence on the downwind area (the Beijing-Tianjin region). Meteorol Appl 13:393–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hara Y, Uno I, Wang Z (2006) Long-term variation of Asian dust and related climate factors. Atmo Environ 40:6730–6740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hulme M, Zhao ZC, Jiang T (1994) Recent and future climate change in East Asia. Int J Climatol 14:637–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jugder D, Chung YS (2002) Observed climate variability and change in Mongolia. J Korean Meteo Soc 38:593–609Google Scholar
  11. Kim HS, Chung YS, Choi HJ (2014) On air pollutant variations in the cases of long-range transport of dust particles observed in central Korea in the leeside of China in 2010. Air Qual Atmos Health 7:309–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim HS, Chung YS, Lee SG (2012) Characteristics of aerosol types during large-scale transport of air pollution over the Yellow Sea region and at Cheongwon, Korea, in 2008. Environ Monit Assess 184:1973–1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim HS, Chung YS, Tans PP, Yoon MB (2015) Climatological variability of air temperature and precipitation observed in South Korea for the last 50 years. Air Qual Atmos Health 9:645–651Google Scholar
  14. Kim HS, Chung YS, Yoon MB (2016) An analysis on the impact of large-scale transports of dust pollution on air quality in East Asia as observed in central Korea in 2014. Air Qual Atmos Health 9:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim J (2008) Transport routes and source regions of Asian dust observed in Korea during the past 40 years (1965-2004). Atmo Environ 42:4778–4789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kurosaki Y, Mikami M (2003) Recent frequent dust events and their relation to surface wind in East Asia. Geophys Res Let 30:1736–1739Google Scholar
  17. Laurent B, Marticorena B, Bergametti G, Chazette P, Maignan F, Schmechtig C (2005) Simulation of the mineral dust emission frequencies from desert areas of China and Mongolia using an aerodynamic roughness length map derived from the POLDER/ADEOS 1 surface products. J Geophys Res 110:D18S04Google Scholar
  18. Mahowald N, Luo C, Corral JD, Zender CS (2003) Interannual variability in atmospheric mineral aerosols from a 22-year model simulation and observation data. J Geophys Res 108:4352–4371Google Scholar
  19. Natsagdorj L, Jugder D, Chung YS (2003) Analysis of dust storms observed in Mongolia during 1937-1999. Atmos Environ 37:1401–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Polyakov IV, Bekryaev RV, Alekseev GV, Bhatt US, Colony RL, Johnson MA, Maskshtas AP, Walsh D (2003) Variability and trends of air temperature and pressure in the maritime Arctic, 1875-2000. J Clim 16:2067–2077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Qian W, Zhu Y (2001) Climate change in China from 1880 to 1998 and its impact on the environmental condition. Clim Change 50:419–444Google Scholar
  22. Qian W, Quan L, Shi S (2002) Variations of the dust storm in China and its climatic control. J Clim 15:1216–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Qian W, Tang X, Quan L (2004) Regional characteristics of dust storms in China. Atmo Environ 38:4895–4907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Seinfeld JH, Carmichael GR, Arimoto R, Conant WC, Brechtel FJ, Bates TS, Cahill TA, Clarke AD, Doherty SJ, Flatau PJ, Huebert BJ, Kim J, Markowicz KM, Quinn PK, Russell LM, Russell PB, Shimizu A, Shinozuka Y, Song CH, Tang Y, Uno I, Vogelmann AM, Weber RJ, Woo JH, Zhang XY (2004) ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of Asian dust and pollution. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 85:367–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sun J, Zhang M, Liu T (2001) Spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms in China and its surrounding regions, 1960-1999: relations to source area and climate. J Geophys Res 106(D10):10325–10333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Watts I (1969) Climates of China and Korea. In: Arakawa H (ed) Climates of northern and eastern Asia. World survey of climatology, vol 8. Elsevier Scientific Pub, Amsterdam, pp 1–118Google Scholar
  27. Wang W, Fang ZY (2006) Numerical simulation and synoptic analysis of dust emission and transport in East Asia. Glob Planet Change 52:57–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang X, Huang JP, Ji MX, Higuchi K (2008) Variability of East Asia dust events and their long-term trend. Atmos Environ 42:3156–3165CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Korea National University of EducationCheongjuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Korea Centre for Atmospheric Environment ResearchCheongjuSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations