Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 9, Issue 7, pp 775–783 | Cite as

Investigating ozone episodes in Portugal: a wavelet-based approach

  • A. MonteiroEmail author
  • S. Gouveia
  • M. G. Scotto
  • J. Lopes
  • C. Gama
  • M. Feliciano
  • A. I. Miranda


During the summer season, ozone concentrations regularly exceed the legislation limits in the North of Portugal, namely at Douro Norte monitoring station. The origin of such ozone episodes has been widely reported in several studies although uncertainties regarding its origin still remain. This work intends to investigate how the ozone concentrations measured at the Douro Norte nearest stations, located at west and east directions, are related to those measured at Douro Norte by means of coherence and phase transformations methods. The episodes were selected according to the magnitude of the hourly ozone peaks and the occurrence of exceedances of the threshold value at least in two sites. The results point out that 60 % of the selected episodes highlight significant dependence between Douro Norte station and the other two monitoring sites, with different phase signal and a delay range from 2 to 4 h.


Monitoring stations North Portugal Ozone episodes Wavelet transformation 



The authors wish to thank the financial support of the Comissão de Coordenação e Desenvolvimento Regional do Norte (CCDR-N). Thanks are extended to the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology for the financial support through the Project MAPLIA (PTDC/AAG-MAA/4077/2012), and the PhD grant of Carla Gama (SFRH/BD/87468/2012) and the Pos-Doc grant of S. Gouveia (SFRH/-BPD/87037/2012), and CIDMA/UA project PEst-OE/MAT/UI4106/2014 (Centro de Investigação e Desenvolvimento em Matemática e Aplicações, CIDMA/UA, Aveiro,, and IEETA/UA project PEst-OE/EEI/-UI0127/2014 (Instituto de Engenharia Electrónica e Telemática de Aveiro, IEETA/UA, Aveiro,


  1. Borrego C, Miranda AI, Coutinho M, Ferreira J, Carvalho AC (2002) Air quality management in Portugal: example of needs and available tools. Environ Pollut 120:115–123. doi: 10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00134-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borrego C, Tchepel O, Costa AM, Amorim JH, Miranda AI (2003) Emission and dispersion modelling of Lisbon air quality at local scale. Atmos Environ 37:5197–5205. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borrego C, Monteiro A, Martins H, Ferreira J, Fernandes AP, Rafael S, Miranda AI, Guevara M, Baldasano JM (2015) Air quality plan for ozone: an urgent need for North Portugal. Air Qual Atmos Health. doi: 10.1007/s11869-015-0352-5. in pressGoogle Scholar
  4. Brauer M, Brook JR (1997) Ozone personal exposure and health effect for selected groups residing in the Fraser Valley. Atmos Environ 31:113–121. doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(96)00129-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carvalho A, Monteiro A, Ribeiro I, Tchepel O, Miranda AI, Borrego C, Saavedra S, Souto JA, Casares JJ (2010) High ozone levels in the Northeast of Portugal: analysis and characterization. Atmos Environ 44:1020–1031. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.12.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chevalier A, Gheusi F, Delmas R, Ordoñez C, Sarrat C, Zbinden R, Thouret V, Athier G, Cousin JM (2007) Influence of altitude on ozone levels and variability in the lower troposphere: a ground-based study for Western Europe over the period 2001–2004. Atmos Chem Phys 7:4311–4326. doi: 10.5194/acp-7-4311-2007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Donev E, Zeller K, Avramov A (2002) Preliminary background ozone concentrations in the mountain and coastal areas of Bulgaria. Environ Pollut 117:281–286. doi: 10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00192-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Draxler RR, Hess GD (2004) Description of the HYSPLIT 4 modelling system. Techinal Memorandum ERL ARL-224. NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MDGoogle Scholar
  9. Dueñas C, Fernández CM, Cañete S, Carretero J, Liger E (2004) Analyses of ozone in urban and rural sites in Málaga (Spain). Chemosphere 56:631–639. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evtyugina MG, Nunes T, Alves C, Marques MC (2009) Photochemical pollution in a rural mountainous area in the Northeast of Portugal. Atmos Res 92:151–158. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gama C, Nunes T, Marques MC, Ferreira F (2009) Contribution of long-range transport to the ozone levels recorded in the Northeast of Portugal. Geophys Res Abstr 11, EGU2009-11256-1, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  12. Gouveia C, Liberato MLR (2008) Local circulations over complex terrain in the Northeast of Portugal - Modelling O3 transport. Geophys Res Abstr 10, EGU2008-A-09628, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  13. Grinsted A, Moore JC, Jevrejeva S (2004) Application of the cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence to geophysical time series. Nonlin Processes Geophys 11:561–566. doi: 10.5194/npg-11-561-2004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hogsett WE, Weber JE, Tingey D, Herstrom A, Lee EH, Laurence JA (1997) Environmental auditing: an approach for characterizing tropospheric ozone risk to forests. Environ Manage 21:105–120. doi: 10.1007/s002679900010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lefhon AS (1992) Surface level ozone exposures and their effects on vegetation. Lewis Publishers, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Monks P (2000) A review of the observations and origins of the spring ozone maximum. Atmos Environ 34:3545–3561. doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00129-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Monteiro A, Vautard R, Borrego C, Miranda AI (2005) Long-term simulations of photo oxidant pollution over Portugal using the CHIMERE model. Atmos. Environ 39:3089–3101. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.01.045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Monteiro A, Strunk A, Carvalho A, Tchepel O, Miranda AI, Borrego C, Saavedra S, Rodríguez A, Souto J, Casares J, Friese E, Elbern H (2012) Investigating a high ozone episode in a rural mountain site. Environ Pollut 162:176–189. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ozen BF, Mauer LJ, Floros ID (2002) Effects of ozone exposure on the structural, mechanical and barrier properties of select plastic packaging film. Packag Technol Sci 15:301–311. doi: 10.1002/pts.602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Percival DB, Walden AT (2006) Wavelet methods for time series analysis. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. Reid N, Yap D, Bloxam R (2008) The potential role of background ozone on current and emerging air issues: an overview. Air Qual Atmos Health 1:19–29. doi: 10.1007/s11869-008-0005-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Roger DP, Samoli E, Pham L, Dominici F, Touloumi G, Ramsay T, Burnett RT, Krewski D, Tertre AL et al (2013) Acute effects of ambient ozone on mortality in Europe and North America: results from the APHENA study. Air Qual Atmos Health 6:445–453. doi: 10.1007/s11869-012-0180-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Saavedra S, Rodríguez A, Taboada JJ, Souto JA, Casares JJ (2012) Synoptic patterns and air mass transport during ozone episodes. Sci Total Environ 441:97–110. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sanz MJ, Millán MM (2000) Ozone in the Mediterranean region: evidence of injury to vegetation. In: Innes JL, Oleksyn J (eds) Proceedings of the Forest Dynamics in Heavily Polluted Regions. CAB International, pp 165–192Google Scholar
  25. Szyszkowicz M, Porada E, Searles G, Rowe BH (2010) Ambient ozone and emergency department visits for skin conditions. Air Qual Atmos Health 5:303–309. doi: 10.1007/s11869-010-0092-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Torrence C, Compo GP (1998) A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 79:61–78. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0061:APGTWA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vingarzan R (2004) A review of surface ozone background levels and trends. Atmos Environ 38:3431–3442. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.03.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CESAM, Department of Environment and PlanningUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Institute of Electronics and Telematics Engineering of Aveiro (IEETA) and CIDMAUniversity of AveiroAverioPortugal
  3. 3.CEMAT and Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversity of LisbonLisboaPortugal
  4. 4.CIMO Polytechnic Institute of BragançaBragançaPortugal

Personalised recommendations