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Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 403–409 | Cite as

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene concentrations in atmospheric ambient air of gasoline and CNG refueling stations

  • Sadegh Hazrati
  • Roohollah Rostami
  • Mehdi Fazlzadeh
  • Farhad PourfarziEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study aimed to assess workers’ exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds in refueling stations of Ardabil city (Iran). Twenty-four refueling stations including 15 petrol and 9 compressed natural gas (CNG) stations from different regions were selected and monitored for ambient BTEX concentrations. Air samples were taken based on NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method no 1501. Target compounds were extracted using CS2 and analyzed by GC equipped with FID. Average concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were obtained 2.01, 1.80, 2.72, and 1.65 mg/m3, respectively. Benzene concentrations exceeded the occupational exposure limit set by the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Its concentrations were significantly higher in commercial areas (2.72 mg/m3) compared to suburban areas (1.89 mg/m3). BTEX concentrations in gasoline stations were slightly, but not significantly, higher than those in CNG stations. Long-term exposure cancer risk of 1884 × 10−6 ± 390 × 10−6 and hazard index of 22.83 ± 3.66 were estimated for benzene and BTEX compounds, respectively. The results declare the necessity for controlling BTEX emission (mainly benzene) and monitoring employee’s exposure in refueling stations.

Keywords

Volatile organic compounds Air pollution Refueling station 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge financial support of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences for this work.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sadegh Hazrati
    • 1
  • Roohollah Rostami
    • 2
  • Mehdi Fazlzadeh
    • 1
  • Farhad Pourfarzi
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthArdabil University of Medical SciencesArdabilIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthSemnan University of Medical SciencesSemnanIran
  3. 3.Department of Community Medicine, School of MedicineArdabil University of Medical SciencesArdabilIran

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