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Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 8, Issue 5, pp 507–519 | Cite as

Chemical characterization and in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particulate matter generated under varying conditions

  • Julie Richman FoxEmail author
  • David P. Cox
  • Bertram E. Drury
  • Timothy R. Gould
  • Terrance J. Kavanagh
  • Michael H. Paulsen
  • Lianne Sheppard
  • Christopher D. Simpson
  • James A. Stewart
  • Timothy V. Larson
  • Joel D. Kaufman
Article

Abstract

Epidemiologic studies have linked diesel exhaust (DE) to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, as well as lung cancer. DE composition is known to vary with many factors, although it is unclear how this influences toxicity. We generated eight DE atmospheres by applying a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design and altering three parameters in a controlled exposure facility: (1) engine load (27 vs 82 %), (2) particle aging (residence time ~5 s vs ~5 min prior to particle collection), and (3) oxidation (with or without ozonation during dilution). Selected exposure concentrations of both diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and DE gases, DEP oxidative reactivity via DTT activity, and in vitro DEP toxicity in murine endothelial cells were measured for each DE atmosphere. Cell toxicity was assessed via measurement of cell proliferation (colony formation assay), cell viability (MTT assay), and wound healing (scratch assay). Differences in DE composition were observed as a function of engine load. The mean 1-nitropyrene concentration was 15 times higher and oxidative reactivity was two times higher for low engine load versus high load. There were no substantial differences in measured toxicity among the three DE exposure parameters. These results indicate that alteration of applied engine load shifts the composition and can modify the biological reactivity of DE. While engine conditions did not affect the selected in vitro toxicity measures, the change in oxidative reactivity suggests that toxicological studies with DE need to take into account engine conditions in characterizing biological effects.

Keywords

Air pollution Diesel exhaust Varying exposure conditions Physicochemical properties In vitro toxicity 

Abbreviations

Ba

Barium

Ca

Calcium

CMD

Count median diameter

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

Cr

Chromium

Cu

Copper

DE

Diesel exhaust

DEP

Diesel exhaust particulate

DTNB

5,5’-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)

DTT

Dithiothreitol

EC

Elemental carbon

Fe

Iron

GE

Gasoline exhaust

HPEM

Harvard personal environmental monitor

Mg

Magnesium

MMAD

Mass median aerodynamic diameter

MTT

3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide

Ni

Nickel

1-NP

1-Nitropryene

NO

Nitric oxide

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen

NO2

Nitrogen dioxide

OC

Organic carbon

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Pb

Lead

PBS

Phosphate-buffered saline

PM2.5

Fine particulate matter

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene

SD

Standard deviation

Sn

Tin

TNB

3-Thio-6-nitrobenzoate

TRAP

Traffic-related air pollution

UV

Ultraviolet

UW

University of Washington

Notes

Acknowledgments

Funding for this study was provided by NIH/NIEHS Grants T32ES015459, T32ES007032, P50ES015915, and P30ES007033, and the Amgen Scholar’s Program. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Supplementary material

11869_2014_301_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (555 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 555 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie Richman Fox
    • 1
    Email author
  • David P. Cox
    • 1
  • Bertram E. Drury
    • 2
  • Timothy R. Gould
    • 3
  • Terrance J. Kavanagh
    • 1
  • Michael H. Paulsen
    • 1
  • Lianne Sheppard
    • 1
    • 4
  • Christopher D. Simpson
    • 1
  • James A. Stewart
    • 1
  • Timothy V. Larson
    • 1
    • 3
  • Joel D. Kaufman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.School of Medicine, University of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil & Environmental EngineeringUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biostatistics University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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