Advertisement

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 215–224 | Cite as

Quantification of in-vehicle gaseous contaminants of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide under varying climatic conditions

  • Akhil KadiyalaEmail author
  • Ashok Kumar
Article

Abstract

This study quantifies the monitored in-vehicle contaminants of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) under varying climatic conditions using advanced statistical methods of regression trees and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The independent influential variables affecting vehicular CO2 and CO are first identified by using regression trees after considering meteorology, monitoring periods, indoor sources, on-road vehicles, and ventilation. Next, ANOVA is used as a complementary analysis to regression tree results to determine the statistical significance of the identified influential variables and to prioritize the statistically significant variables based on the F value. Passenger ridership and month are observed to have a predominant influence on in-vehicle CO2, while month and sky conditions showed a predominant influence on vehicular CO levels. High passenger ridership on a warm/hot day with good ventilation resulted in high CO2 buildup inside the vehicle. High levels of CO are observed inside the vehicle during fall, spring, and summer months on overcast days, with low to medium indoor temperatures, moderate to good ventilating conditions, low indoor relative humidity, and low wind speeds.

Keywords

Indoor air quality Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Regression tree analysis Analysis of variance Biodiesel public transport buses 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the United States Department of Transportation and Toledo Area Regional Transit Authority (TARTA) for the alternate fuel grant awarded to the Intermodal Transportation Institute of The University of Toledo. The authors would also like to express their sincere gratitude to the TARTA management and the employees for their continued interest and involvement in this work.

References

  1. Alm S, Jantunen MJ, Vartiainen M (1999) Urban commuter exposure to particulate matter and carbon monoxide inside an automobile. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 9:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. California Air Resources Board Fact Sheet (2003) Children’s school bus exposure study. http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/schoolbus/sbfact.pdf. Accessed 15 August 2011
  3. Chan A (2003) Commuter exposure and indoor-outdoor relationships of carbon oxides in buses in Hong Kong. Atmos Environ 37:3809–3815. doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00465-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan LY, Liu YM (2001) Carbon monoxide levels in popular passenger commuting modes traversing major commuting routes in Hong Kong. Atmos Environ 35:2637–2646. doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00450-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chan CC, Ozkaynak H, Spengler JD, Sheldon L (1991) Driver exposure to volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide under different driving conditions. Environ Sci Technol 25:964–972. doi: 10.1021/es00017a021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan LY, Chan CY, Qin Y (1999) The effect of commuting microenvironment on commuter exposures to vehicular emission in Hong Kong. Atmos Environ 33:1777–1787. doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00338-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan LY, Lau WL, Zou SC, Cao ZX, Lai SC (2002) Exposure level of carbon monoxide and respirable suspended particulate in public transportation modes while commuting in urban area of Guangzhou, China. Atmos Environ 36:5831–5840. doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00687-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clifford MJ, Clarke R, Riffat SB (1997) Drivers’ exposure to carbon monoxide in Nottingham, UK. Atmos Environ 31:1003–1009. doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(96)00295-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Critical Environment Technologies (2011) http://www.critical-environment.com/products/yes-plus-lga.html. Accessed 5 May 2011
  10. Duci A, Chaloulakou A, Spyrellis N (2003) Exposure to carbon monoxide in the Athens urban area during commuting. Sci Total Environ 309:47–58. doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00045-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fernandez-Bremauntz AA, Ashmore MR (1995) Exposure of commuters to carbon monoxide in Mexico City—1: measurement of in-vehicle concentrations. Atmos Environ 29:525–532. doi: 10.1016/1352-2310(94)00248-J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frey HC, Mokhtari A, Danish T (2003) Evaluation of selected sensitivity analysis methods based upon applications to two food safety process risk models. http://www.ce.ncsu.edu/risk/Phase2Final.pdf. Accessed 29 September 2011
  13. Gomez-Perales JE, Colvile RN, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Fernandez-Bremauntz A, Gutierrez-Avedoy VJ, Paramo-Figueroa VH, Blanco-Jimenez S, Bueno- Lopez E, Mandujano F, Bernabe-Cabanillas R, Ortiz-Segovia E (2004) Commuters’ exposure to PM2.5, CO, and benzene in public transport in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. Atmos Environ 38:1219–1229. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.11.008
  14. Jo WK, Park KH (1999) Commuter exposure to volatile organic compounds under different driving conditions. Atmos Environ 33:409–417. doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00201-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kadiyala A, Kumar A (2008) Application of CART and Minitab software to identify variables affecting indoor concentration levels. Environ Prog 27:160–168. doi: 10.1002/ep.10292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kadiyala A, Kumar A (2011) Study of in-vehicle pollutant variation in public transport buses operating on alternative fuels in the city of Toledo, Ohio. The Open Environ Biol Monit J 4:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kadiyala A, Kumar A, Vijayan A (2010) Study of occupant exposure of drivers and commuters with temporal variation of in-vehicle pollutant concentrations in public transport buses operating on alternative diesel fuels. The Open Environ Eng J 3:55–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lawryk NJ, Lioy PJ, Weisel CP (1995) Exposure to volatile organic compounds in the passenger compartment of automobiles during periods of normal and malfunctioning operation. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 5:511–531Google Scholar
  19. Lindgren T, Norback D (2002) Cabin air quality: indoor pollutants and climate during intercontinental flights with and without tobacco smoking. Indoor Air 12:263–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. NCDC (2008) National Climatic Data Center unedited local climatological data. http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/ulcd/ULCD. Accessed 5 July 2008
  21. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Report (2004) Air pollution from nearby traffic and children’s health: information for schools. http://oehha.ca.gov/public_info/facts/pdf/Factsheetschools.pdf. Accessed 3 March 2011
  22. Ptak TJ, Fallon SL (1994) Particulate concentration in automobile passenger compartments. Particul Sci Technol 12:313–322. doi: 10.1080/02726359408906658 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rodes C, Sheldon L, Whitaker D, Clayton A, Fitzgerald K, Flanagan J, DiGenova F, Hering S, Frazier C (1998) Measuring concentrations of selected air pollutants inside California vehicles. http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/apr/past/95-339a.pdf. Accessed 29 September 2011
  24. Solomon S, Garcia RR, Olivero JJ, Bevilacqua RM, Schwartz PR, Clancy RT, Muhleman DO (1985) Photochemistry and transport of carbon monoxide in the middle atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 42:1072–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Solomon GM, Campbell TR, Feuer GR, Masters J, Samkian A, Paul KA (2001) No breathing in the aisles: diesel exhaust inside school buses. http://www.nrdc.org/air/transportation/schoolbus/schoolbus.pdf. Accessed 29 September 2011
  26. TARTA Routes and Timings (2011) http://www.tarta.com/wp-content/uploads/routes/20.pdf. Accessed 3 May 2011
  27. Vijayan A, Kumar A (2008) Characterization of indoor air quality inside public transport buses using alternative diesel fuels. http://pubsindex.trb.org/view.aspx?id=848844. Accessed 29 September 2011
  28. Wargo J, Brown D, Cullen M, Addiss S, Alderman N (2002) Children’s exposure to diesel exhaust on school buses. http://www.ehhi.org/reports/diesel/diesel.pdf. Accessed 29 September 2011

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringThe University of ToledoToledoUSA

Personalised recommendations