Systemic Therapies for Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

  • Haley Hauser
  • Daniela Shveid Gerson
  • Diane Reidy-Lagunes
  • Nitya RajEmail author
Neuroendocrine Cancers (JR Strosberg, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Neuroendocrine Cancers

Opinion statement

Over the years, there have been significant advances in systemic treatments for metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs). Despite these advancements, uncertainty remains regarding how to best sequence available therapies. For well-differentiated and metastatic panNETs that are somatostatin receptor (SSTR) avid on functional imaging, first-line therapy typically consists of somatostatin analogs (SSAs), given their favorable toxicity profile and overall low burden for patients. When progression of disease is observed on an SSA, multiple treatment options are available, including the targeted agents everolimus and sunitinib, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), as well as chemotherapy, with the latter often preferred for those panNETs of heavy tumor burden, higher grade, and/or more aggressive behavior clinically and/or radiographically. Here, we review panNET classification, currently available systemic treatments, therapy sequencing, and areas of active investigation to further our treatments for the disease.


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs) Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) Targeted agents Chemotherapy PRRT 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Haley Hauser, Daniela Shveid Gerson, Diane Reidy-Lagunes, and Nitya Raj declare they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haley Hauser
    • 1
  • Daniela Shveid Gerson
    • 2
  • Diane Reidy-Lagunes
    • 3
  • Nitya Raj
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, Department of MedicineMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.ABC Medical CenterCiudad de MéxicoMexico
  3. 3.Chief of Clinical Operations, Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, Department of MedicineMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

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