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Clinical Trials Investigating Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Glioblastoma

  • Russell Maxwell
  • Christopher M. Jackson
  • Michael LimEmail author
Neuro-oncology (GJ Lesser, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Neuro-oncology

Opinion statement

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have changed the landscape of cancer immunotherapy and are being integrated into the standard of care for a variety of solid and hematologic malignancies. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and carries a grave prognosis despite advances in surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Implementing immunotherapy for brain tumors mandates additional considerations due to the unique structural and immunologic milieu of the central nervous system (CNS). Nevertheless, strong data from preclinical studies have driven clinical trials of immune checkpoint blockade for newly diagnosed and recurrent GBM. The focus of this review is to discuss the ongoing clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors in GBM and review the immunologic rationale for ongoing and future trial designs.

Keywords

Glioblastoma Malignant glioma Immune checkpoint PD-1 PD-L1 CTLA-4 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Russell Maxwell declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Christopher M. Jackson declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Michael Lim has received research support through grants from Arbor, Agenus, Altor, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Immunocellular Therapeutics, Celldex Therapeutics, and Accuray, and has served as a consultant for Agenus, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Regeneron, and Stryker.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russell Maxwell
    • 1
  • Christopher M. Jackson
    • 1
  • Michael Lim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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