Clinical Utility of Circulating Tumour Cell Detection in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
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Recent years have witnessed increased interest in the detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment decision making in patients with cancer. Factors that have led to accelerated research in this field include advances in technologies for examination of intact CTCs, personalised medicine with treatment selection according to molecular characteristics, and continued lack of understanding of the biology of treatment resistance and metastasis. CTCs offer promise as a surrogate for tissue where there is insufficient tissue for molecular analysis and where there is a requirement to serially monitor molecular changes in cancer cells through treatment or on progression. In patients with either small cell or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there is evidence that CTC number is prognostic and that CTCs counted before and after treatment mirror treatment response. In patients with molecularly defined subtypes of NSCLC, CTCs demonstrate the same molecular changes as the cancer cells of the tumour. However, CTCs are not quite ready for “primetime” in the lung cancer clinic. There are still more questions than answers with respect to the optimal technologies for their detection and analysis, their biological significance, and their clinical utility. Despite this the current pace of progress in CTC technology development seems set to make “liquid biopsies” a clinical reality within the next decade. For the everyday clinician and clinical trialist, it will be important to maintain knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies and evolving evidence base for CTCs as a routinely used diagnostic tool.
KeywordsCirculating tumour cells NSCLC Review Biomarkers
Conflict of Interest
Alberto Fusi, Robert Metcalf, Matthew Krebs, Caroline Dive, and Fiona Blackhall declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
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