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- Gallagher, D.J. & Milowsky, M.I. Curr. Treat. Options in Oncol. (2009) 10: 205. doi:10.1007/s11864-009-0112-6
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Bladder cancer is a complex disease of older patients with coexisting medical problems requiring multimodal therapy. For patients with localized bladder cancer, standard management for superficial disease includes transurethral resection with or without intravesical therapy, while muscle-invasive cancer is managed with neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy. Comorbid conditions prevent many older patients from receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy and/or undergoing surgery. Tri-modality bladder preservation approaches including a complete transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by combined chemotherapy and radiation have generally included only those patients who are candidates for a salvage cystectomy. Future research must specifically focus on older adults with bladder cancer including non-cisplatin-based neoadjuvant regimens; bladder preservation strategies using alternative non-cisplatin chemotherapy in non-cystectomy candidates; clinical trials evaluating novel targeted agents in older adults; and geriatric assessment tools to assist in decision making.