Developing mathematics teachers’ 21st century competence for teaching in STEM contexts
- 117 Downloads
Teachers are increasingly being called upon to teach in ways that develop 21st century learning skills in their students. Various frameworks for 21st century learning have been proposed and while they differ, all agree on four components for development—creativity, collaboration, communication and critical thinking. Both individually and together, STEM subject areas contribute to the development and enactment of these skills through inquiry-based approaches to learning. Although integrated approaches to teaching the STEM disciplines afford enhanced opportunities to develop these skills, they rely on teachers having expertise in at least one and ideally more than one of the relevant underpinning disciplines. At a time when many countries are experiencing shortages of adequately qualified teachers of mathematics and some science disciplines, this presents an especially difficult challenge. Similarly, if teachers are to facilitate their students’ 21st century competence they need to have this competence themselves—a fact that appears to have been largely ignored to date. In this paper we present a framework that enables novice teachers (novice to teaching in general, teaching a STEM discipline, or teaching integrated STEM) to think in detail about what they need to know, find out, or think about as they plan for teaching, enact teaching, and reflect on teaching. As well as explicating the complexity of the knowledge of teachers of individual and integrated STEM disciplines, the framework highlights the importance of teachers’ own 21st century skills. Finally, we suggest ways in which teachers might use or adapt the framework to assist their students to develop their own 21st century competence.
KeywordsSTEM education Mathematics teacher expertise 21st Century competence 21st Century learning STEMCrAfT framework
Funding for the project reported here was provided by the Australian Department of Industry, Innovation, Climate Change, Science, Research and Tertiary Education, through the Australian Mathematics and Science Partnerships Program (AMSPP) Priority Projects.
- Atkinson, R. D., & Mayo, M. (2010). Refuelling the US innovation economy: Fresh approaches to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. Washington DC: The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation.Google Scholar
- Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2018). The Australian curriculum: Mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Mathematics/Curriculum/F-10.
- Beswick, K., Fraser, S., & Crowley, S. (2016). “No wonder out-of-field teachers struggle!”: Unpacking the thinking of expert teachers. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 72(4), 16–20.Google Scholar
- Bybee, R. W. (2010). Advancing STEM education: A 2020 vision. Technology and Engineering Teacher, 70(1), 30–35.Google Scholar
- Caprile, M., Palmén, R., Sanz, P., & Dente, G. (2015). Encouraging STEM studies: Labour market situation and comparison of practice targeted at young people in different member states. Brussels: European Union.Google Scholar
- Hansen, V. L. (2002). Popularizing mathematics: From eight to infinity. In L.I. Tatsien (Ed.). Proceedings of the international congress of mathematicians (Vol. 3, pp. 885–888). Beijing, China. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/pdf/math/0305019.pdf.
- Honey, M., Pearson, G., & Schweingruber, H. (Eds.). (2014). STEM integration in K-12 education: Status, prospects, and an agenda for research. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Hossain, M., & Robinson, M. G. (2012). How to motivate US students to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) careers. US-China Education Review A, 4, 442–451.Google Scholar
- Jerald, C. D. & Ingersoll, R. (2002). All talk and no action: Putting an end to out-of-field teaching. Retrieved from http://reprository.upenn.edu/gse_pubs/142.
- Killion, J. P., & Todnem, G. A. (1991). A process for personal theory building. Educational Leadership, 48(6), 14–16.Google Scholar
- Kivunja, C. (2014). Do you want your students to be job-ready with 21st century skills? Change pedagogies: A pedagogical paradigm shift from Vygotskyian social constructivism to critical thinking problem solving and Siemen’s digital connectivism. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(3), 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Konold, C., & Miller, C. D. (2005). Tinkerplots: Dynamic data exploration. Emeryville: Key Curriculum Press.Google Scholar
- Lyons, T., Cooksey, R., Panizzon, D., Parnell, A., & Pegg, J. (2006). Science, ICT and mathematics education in rural and regional Australia: The SiMERR national survey. National Centre of Science: Armidale.Google Scholar
- Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J., & Borko, H. (1999). Nature, sources and development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Examining pedagogical content knowledge: The construct and its implications for science education (pp. 95–132). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
- McCain, T. (2007). Teaching for tomorrow: Teaching content and problem-solving skills. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
- McIntosh, A., & Dole, S. (2004). Mental computation: A strategies approach. Hobart: Department of Education.Google Scholar
- McPhan, G., Morony, W., Pegg, J., Cooksey, R., & Lynch, T. (2008). Maths? Why not. Canberra: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations.Google Scholar
- Ministerial Council on Education Employment and Youth Affairs. (2008). Melbourne declaration on educational goals for young Australians. Retrieved from Melbourne, Australia: http://www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/National_Declaration_on_the_Educational_Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf.
- Moody, B. (2011). Decipipes: Helping students to “Get the point”. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 16(1), 10–15.Google Scholar
- Office of the Chief Scientist. (2014). Science, technology, engineering and mathematics: Australia’s future. Canberra: Australian Government.Google Scholar
- Rotherham, A. J. & Willingham, D. T. (2010). “21st century skills: Not new but a worthy challenge. American Educator, Spring, 17–20. Retrieved from https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/RotherhamWillingham.pdf.
- Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. London: Temple Smith.Google Scholar
- Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Science and Technology Policy Division of the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation. (2016). In Policy profiles (OECD STI Outlook 2016). Retrieved from https://www.innovationpolicyplatform.org/content/policy-profiles-oecd-sti-outlook-2016.
- Sigsworth, A., & Solstad, K. J. (Eds.). (2008). Small rural schools: A small inquiry. Nesna, Norway: Nesna University College. Retrieved from https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/145678/64.pdf?sequence=1.
- Sullivan, A., & Johnson, B. (2012). Questionable practices? Relying on individual teacher resilience in remote schools. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 22(3), 101–116.Google Scholar
- Thomson, S., Wernert, N., O’Grady, E., & Rodrigues, S. (2016). TIMSS 2015: A first look at Australia’s results. Camberwell: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
- Timms, M., Moyle, K., Weldon, P. R., & Mitchell, P. (2018). Challenges in STEM learning in Australian schools. Retrieved from Melbourne.Google Scholar
- Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st Century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2016). Preparing and supporting teachers to meet the challenges of 21st century learning in Asia-Pacific. UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002460/246052E.pdf.
- Wienk, M. (2017). Discipline profile of the mathematical sciences. Retrieved from https://amsi.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/discipline-profile-2017-web.pdf.