Advertisement

ZDM

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 27–38 | Cite as

Scaling CPD through professional learning communities: development of teachers’ self-efficacy in relation to collaboration

  • Jochen WeißenriederEmail author
  • Bettina Roesken-Winter
  • Sven Schueler
  • Elke Binner
  • Sigrid Blömeke
Original Article

Abstract

Whereas much is known about designing effective continuous professional development (CPD) for teachers, little is known about spillover effects of CPD by fostering collegial interactions. In this respect, the self-efficacy expectancy of multipliers to spread CPD issues within their own school is an important predictor for scaling. Self-efficacy can be fostered through various sources within CPD courses, including role-plays and practice phases to test issues. One essential endeavor lies in initiating collaboration in professional learning communities (PLCs). The study discussed here focuses on two courses explicitly supporting multipliers to actively engage in PLCs. In a pre/post-design, participants’ development of self-efficacy was measured in relation to collaboration, and compared with that of a control group. As instrument we applied an adapted version of the self-efficacy scale by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schülermerkmalen, (1999), which yielded a high internal reliability (Cr alpha = 0.950). Our results point to different developments within the two specific CPD courses, with one course featuring a significant development of middle size effect (d = 0.31). In addition, developments were found to differ with respect to the duration of the CPD course.

Keywords

Continuous Professional Development Teacher Learning Efficacy Belief Vicarious Experience Professional Learning Community 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  5. Baumert, J., Kunter, M., Blum, W., Brunner, M., Voss, T., Jordan, A., et al. (2010). Teachers’ mathematical knowledge, cognitive activation in the classroom, and student progress. American Educational Research Journal, 47(1), 133–180. doi: 10.3102/0002831209345157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blömeke, S., Suhl, U., & Kaiser, G. (2011). Teacher education effectiveness: quality and equity of future primary teachers’ mathematics and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(2), 154–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolam, R. (2005). 5. In-service education and training. World Yearbook of Education: Professional Development of Teachers, 85.Google Scholar
  8. Bonsen, M., & Rolff, H. (2006). Professionelle Lerngemeinschaften von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 52(2), 167–184.Google Scholar
  9. Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 3(8), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coburn, C. E. (2003). Rethinking scale: moving beyond numbers to deep and lasting change. Educational researcher, 32(6), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, D. K. (1990). A revolution in one classroom: the case of Mrs. Oublier. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 12, 311–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Desimone, L. M. (2011). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher, 38(3), 81–199.Google Scholar
  13. Desimone, L. M., Porter, A. C., Garet, M., Yoon, K. S., & Birman, B. (2002). Does professional development change teachers’ instruction? Results from a three-year study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(2), 81–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DZLM (2014). Theoretischer Rahmen des Deutschen Zentrums für Lehrerbildung Mathematik. www.dzlm.de. Accessed 8 Jan 2015.
  15. Garet, M. S., Porter, A. C., Desimore, L., Birman, B. F., & Yoon, K. S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research, 38(4), 915–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gist, M. E., & Mitchell, T. R. (1992). Self-efficacy: a theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability. Academy of Management Review, 17, 183–211.Google Scholar
  17. Goldsmith, L., Doerr, H., & Lewis, C. (2014). Mathematics teachers’ learning: a conceptual framework and synthesis of research. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 17(1), 5–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goodchild, S. (2014). Mathematics teaching development: learning from developmental research in Norway. ZDM—The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 46(2), 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gräsel, C., Fußangel, K., & Pröbstel, C. (2006). Lehrkräfte zur Kooperation anregen—eine Aufgabe für Sisyphos? Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 52(2), 205–219.Google Scholar
  20. Grossman, P., Hammerness, K., & McDonald, M. (2009). Redefining teaching, re-imagining teacher education. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(2), 273–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harris, A. (2003). Teacher leadership and school improvement. In A. Harris, C. Day, D. Hopkins, M. Hadfield, A. Hargreaves, & C. Chapman (Eds.), Effective leadership for school improvement (pp. 72–83). London: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  22. Hord, S. M. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin: Southwest Educational Development.Google Scholar
  23. Jackson, K., Cobb, P., Wilson, J., Webster, M., Dunlap, C. & Appelgate, M. (2015). Investigating the development of mathematics leaders’ capacity to support teachers’ learning on a large scale. ZDM Mathematics Education, 47(1) (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s11858-014-0652-5.
  24. Jaworski, B. (2006). Theory and practice in mathematics teaching development: critical inquiry as a mode of learning in teaching. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9(2), 187–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jerusalem, M., Drössler, S., Kleine, D., Klein-Heßling, J., Mittag, W., & Röder, B. (2009). Förderung von Selbstwirksamkeit und Selbstbestimmung im Unterricht—Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schülermerkmalen. Berlin: Humboldt-Universität.Google Scholar
  26. Jerusalem, M., & Satow, L. (1999). Schulbezogene Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen. In R. Schwarzer & M. Jerusalem (Eds.), Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schülermerkmalen. Dokumentation der psychometrischen Verfahren im Rahmen der wissenschaftlichen Begleitung des Modellversuchs Selbstwirksame Schulen (pp. 15–16). Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin.Google Scholar
  27. Judge, T. A., Jackson, C. L., Shaw, J. C., Scott, B. A., & Rich, B. L. (2007). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: the integral role of individual differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 107–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kelchtermans, G. (2006). Teacher collaboration and collegiality as workplace conditions. A review. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 52(2), 220–237.Google Scholar
  29. Kennedy, M. M. (1998). Form and substance in in-service teacher education. Research Monograph No. 13. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.Google Scholar
  30. Krainer, K. (2003). Editorial. Teams, communities & networks. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 6, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lachance, A., & Confrey, J. (2003). Interconnecting content and community: a qualitative study of secondary mathematics teachers. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 6(2), 107–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lam, T. C., & Bengo, P. (2003). A comparison of three retrospective self-reporting methods of measuring change in instructional practice. American Journal of Evaluation, 24(1), 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewthwaite, B. (2006). Constraints and contributors to becoming a science teacher-leader. Science Education, 90(2), 331–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lipowsky, F. (2004). Was macht Fortbildungen für Lehrkräfte erfolgreich. Die Deutsche Schule, 96(4), 462–479.Google Scholar
  35. Lipowsky, F., & Rzejak, D. (2012). Lehrerinnen und Lehrer als Lerner—Wann gelingt der Rollentausch? Merkmale und Wirkungen wirksamer Lehrerfortbildungen. Schulpädagogik heute, 5(5), 1–17.Google Scholar
  36. Little, J. (2003). Inside teacher community: representations of classroom practice. The Teachers College Record, 105(6), 913–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lomos, C., Hofman, R. H., & Bosker, R. J. (2011). Professional communities and student achievement—a meta-analysis. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 22(2), 121–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lortie, D. C., & Clement, D. (1975). Schoolteacher: a sociological study (pp. 1–54). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  39. Luszczynska, A., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). The general self-efficacy scale: multicultural validation studies. The Journal of Psychology, 139(5), 439–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Philippou, G. N., & Pantziara, M. (2014). Developments in mathematics teachers’ efficacy beliefs. In B. Pepin & B. Roesken-Winter (Eds.), From beliefs to dynamic affect systems: exploring a mosaic of relationships and interactions. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Rockwell, S. K., & Kohn, H. (1989). Post-then-pre evaluation. Journal of Extension [On-line]. 27(2). http://www.joe.org/joe/1989summer/a5.html. Accessed 8 Jan 2015.
  42. Roesken, B. (2011). Hidden dimensions in the professional development of mathematics teachers—in-service education for and with teachers. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roesken-Winter, B. (2013). Capturing mathematics teachers’ professional development in terms of beliefs. In Y. Li & J. N. Moschkovich (Eds.), Proficiency and beliefs in learning and teaching mathematics—Learning from Alan Schoenfeld and Günter Törner (pp. 157–178). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Roesken-Winter, B., Schüler, S., Stahnke, R., & Blömeke, S. (2015). Effective CPD on a large scale: examining the development of multipliers. ZDM Mathematics Education, 47(1) (this issue). doi: 10.1007/s11858-014-0644-5.
  45. Rosenholtz, S. J. (1989). Workplace conditions that affect teacher quality and commitment: implications for teacher induction programs. Elementary School Journal, 89(4), 421–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schmitz, G. S. (1998). Entwicklung der Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen von Lehrern. [Development of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs]. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 2, 140–157.Google Scholar
  47. Schmitz, G. S., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Individuelle und kollektive Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung von Lehrern [Individual and collective self-efficacy of teachers]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 44. Beiheft: Selbstwirksamkeit und Motivationsprozesse in Bildungsinstitutionen, pp. 192–214.Google Scholar
  48. Schoen, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  49. Schwarzer, R. (1992). Self-efficacy in the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors: theoretical approaches and a new model. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: thought control of action (pp. 217–243). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  50. Schwarzer, R., & Hallum, S. (2008). Perceived teacher self-efficacy as a predictor of job stress and burnout: mediation analyses. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 152–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). Windsor: NFER-Nelson.Google Scholar
  52. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1999). Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schülermerkmalen Berlin: Freie Universität.Google Scholar
  53. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (2002). Das Konzept der Selbstwirksamkeit. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, Selbstwirksamkeit (44. Beiheft), pp. 28–53.Google Scholar
  54. Schwarzer, R., Schmitz, G. S., & Daytner, G.T. (1999). The teacher self-efficacy scale [On-line publication]. http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~gesund/skalen/Language_Selection/Turkish/Teacher_Self-Efficacy/teacher_self-efficacy.htm. Accessed 16 Jan 2015.
  55. Sun, M., Penuel, W. R., Frank, K. A., Gallagher, H. A., & Youngs, P. (2013). Shaping professional development to promote the diffusion of instructional expertise among teachers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 35(3), 344–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Timperley, H., Wilson, A., Barrar, H., & Fung, I. (2007). Teacher professional learning and development. Best evidence synthesis iteration. Wellington: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  57. Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 202–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 944–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2006). Sources of academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of entering middle school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31, 125–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). Sources of self-efficacy in school: critical review of the literature and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 78, 751–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wallace, J. D., Nesbit, C. R., & Miller, A. C. S. (1999). Six leadership models for professional development in science and mathematics. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 10(4), 247–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© FIZ Karlsruhe 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jochen Weißenrieder
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bettina Roesken-Winter
    • 1
  • Sven Schueler
    • 1
  • Elke Binner
    • 1
  • Sigrid Blömeke
    • 2
  1. 1.Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Center for Educational Measurement at the University of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations