Uncountable equilateral sets in Banach spaces of the form C(K)
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The paper is concerned with the problem whether a nonseparable Banach space must contain an uncountable set of vectors such that the distances between every two distinct vectors of the set are the same. Such sets are called equilateral. We show that Martin’s axiom and the negation of the continuum hypothesis imply that every nonseparable Banach space of the form C(K) has an uncountable equilateral set. We also show that one cannot obtain such a result without an additional set-theoretic assumption since we construct an example of nonseparable Banach space of the form C(K) which has no uncountable equilateral set (or equivalently no uncountable (1+ε)-separated set in the unit sphere for any ε > 0) making another consistent combinatorial assumption. The compact K is a version of the split interval obtained from a sequence of functions which behave in an anti-Ramsey manner. It remains open if there is an absolute example of a nonseparable Banach space of the form different than C(K) which has no uncountable equilateral set. It follows from the results of S. Mercourakis and G. Vassiliadis that our example has an equivalent renorming in which it has an uncountable equilateral set. It remains open if there are consistent examples of nonseparable Banach spaces which have no uncountable equilateral sets in any equivalent renorming but it follows from the results of S. Todorcevic that it is consistent that every nonseparable Banach space has an equivalent renorming in which it has an uncountable equilateral set.
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