Advertisement

Journal of Coastal Conservation

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1143–1156 | Cite as

Analysis of sedimentation at the fishing harbor entrance: case study of El-Burullus, Egypt

  • Mahmoud SharaanEmail author
  • Mona G. Ibrahim
  • Moheb Iskander
  • Ali Masria
  • Kazuo Nadaoka
Article

Abstract

Sedimentation in artificial ports and harbors is a common issue throughout the world. Based on an assessment of the coastal fishing harbors in Egypt, the El-Burullus fishing harbor has been found to suffer severely from siltation. Sediment deposits are concentrated at the harbor entrance, which threatens navigation through this area. Although the harbor authority has constructed a perpendicular extension on the main breakwater to mitigate these siltation issues, fishing boats are still suffering from the siltation at the harbor entrance. Dredging is required every year to maintain continuity of navigation through the harbor; the cost of dredging is a critical element which impacts the economic feasibility of the harbor. Therefore, the need to investigate new solutions for the siltation issue is critical. In this study, a two-dimensional calibrated and validated model using the Coastal Modeling System package is used to understand the coastal processes within the study area. It is also used to investigate the effects of the proposed breakwater extension on the siltation at the harbor outlet. Field data such as hydrographic surveys, waves, tides, and lake outlet discharge data were collected and included in the model. The results obtained for the current breakwater conditions confirmed the claims of the fishermen that the sedimentation problem still occurs at the entrance. Thus, five possible solutions to mitigate the problem were proposed and simulated considering the following parameters: sediment deposition rate to the west of the main breakwater, the erosion rate in front of the seawall in the eastern part of the harbor, and the morphological changes within the El-Burullus lake outlet. According to the simulation results, reducing the length of the upper edge of the middle jetty by 90 m improves the stability of the harbor entrance. Alternatively, replacing the perpendicular extension by an inclined extension of 60 m in length and shortening the middle jetty by 60 m reduces the accretion and erosion rates around the harbor which promotes the long-term stability for the coastal area in addition to favorable conditions to the El-Burullus harbor entrance.

Keywords

Sedimentation Fishing harbors Numerical modeling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for providing the financial support (Ph.D. scholarship) for this research as well as the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) for offering the software, facilities, and tools needed to conduct this work. We would like to express special thanks to Dr. Ali Masria, Lecturer at Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University for his contribution, guides during using and training for CMS software. Also, we would express our thanks to the Coastal Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Egypt for technical support and providing different field data and measurements.

References

  1. Abayazid H, El-Shinnawy I (2012) Coastal lake sustainability: threats and opportunities with climate change. IOSR journal of mechanical and. Civ Eng 1(5):33–41. Available at https://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jmce/papers/vol1-issue5/G0153341.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AbdAllah AM, Sharaf El-Din S, Shereet SM (2006) Analysis of wave observation and wave transformation in Abu-Qir bay, Egypt. Egypt J Aquat Res 32(1):22–33Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed AS (2006) Numerical model as a toolto investigate coastal problems in Egypt. In: Proceeding of the tenth international water technology conference, IWTC10 2006, Alexandria, Egypt, pp 933–944Google Scholar
  4. Bottin Jr R, Markle DG (1992) Small-boat harbor design experience (lessons learned) through physical modeling and subsequent prototype performance. US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station VicksburgGoogle Scholar
  5. Cáceres RA, Zyserman JA, Perillo GM (2016) Analysis of sedimentation problems at the entrance to Mar del Plata harbor. Journal of Coastal Research 32(2):301–314 Coconut Creek (Florida)  https://doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-14-00056.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donnelly P, MacInnis I (1968) Experience with self-dredging harbour entrances. In: Coastal engineering, pp 1283–1294Google Scholar
  7. El-Asmar HM, White K (2002) Changes in coastal sediment transport processes due to construction of new Damietta harbour, Nile Delta, Egypt. Coast Eng 46(2):127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. El-Shinnawy IA (2003) Reservoir hydrologic routing for water balance of Al-Burullus wetland, Egypt. In: Proceedings of the seventh international water technology conference IWTC7, pp 867–877Google Scholar
  9. Fanos AM, Khafagy AA, Dean RG (1995) Protective works on the Nile delta coast. J Coast Res 11(2):516–528Google Scholar
  10. Frihy OE (2001) The necessity of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in implementing coastal projects: lessons learned from the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. Ocean Coast Manag 44(7):489–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frihy OE, Deabes EA (2011) Beach and nearshore morphodynamics of the central-bulge of the Nile delta coast, Egypt. International Journal of Environmental protection, IJEP 1(2):33–46Google Scholar
  12. Frihy OE, Abd-ElMoniem AB, Hassan MS (2002) Sedimentation processes at the navigation channel of the Damietta harbour on the northeastern Nile delta coast of Egypt. J Coast Res 18(3):459–469Google Scholar
  13. Frihy OE, Deabes EA, El Gindy AA (2010) Wave climate and nearshore processes on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. J Coast Res 261(261):103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frihy OE, Deabes EA, Helmy EE (2016) Compatibility analysis of dredged sediments from routine pathways and maintenance of harbor’s channels for reuse in nearshore nourishment in the Nile delta, Egypt. J Coast Res 32(3):555–566. Available at https://www.bioone.org/,  https://doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-14-00181.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghosh LK, Prasad N, Joshi VB, Kunte SS (2001) A study on siltation in access channel to a port. Coast Eng 43(1):59–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gunbak AR, Gokce KT, Guler I (1992) Sedimentation and erosion problems of Yakakent fishery harbor. In: Coastal engineering, pp 3081–3092  https://doi.org/10.1061/9780872629332.235 Google Scholar
  17. Iskander MM (2013) Wave climate and coastal structures in the Nile delta coast of Egypt. Emirates Journal for Engineering Research 18(1):43–57Google Scholar
  18. Johnson HN, McAnally WH, Ortega-Achury S (2010) Sedimentation management alternatives for the Port Of Pascagoula. Report no. FHWA/MS-DOT-RD-10-199. Prepared for Mississippi Department of TransportationGoogle Scholar
  19. Khafagy AA, Naffaa MG, Fanos AM, Dean RG (1992) Nearshore coastal changes along the Nile delta shores. In: Coastal engineering, vol 23, pp 3260–3272Google Scholar
  20. Khalifa MA (2012) Adoption of recent formulae for sediment transport calculations applied on the Egyptian Nile delta coastal area. J Coast Conserv 16(1):37–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuijper C, Christiansen H, Cornelisse JM, Winterwerp JC (2005) Reducing harbor siltation. ΙΙ: case study of Parkhafen in Hamburg. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 121(6):267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lakhan VC, editor (2003) Advances in coastal modeling. Elsevier Oceanography Series 67. School of Physical Sciences, Windsor, Canada, PrefaceGoogle Scholar
  23. Lin L, Demirbilek Z (2010) CMS: A coastal modeling system for inlets and navigation projects. In proceedings of the 5th International Ocean-Atmosphere ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  24. Masria AA, Negm AM, Iskander MM, Saavedra OC (2013) Hydrodynamic modeling of outlet stability case study Rosetta promontory in Nile delta. Water Science 27(54):39–47. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110492913000052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mcanally WH, Haydel JF, Savant G (2004) Port sedimentation solutions for the Tennessee-Tombigbee waterway in Mississippi. Report 1. Department of Civil Engineering, James Worth Bagely College of Engineering, Mississipi State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  26. Mojabi M, Hejazi K, Karimi M (2013) Numerical investigation of effective harbor geometry parameters on sedimentation inside square harbors. Int. J.MAr. Sci Eng 3(2):57–68Google Scholar
  27. Ouellet Y, Anctil F, Desjardins L (1989) Solving a harbor accretion problem: the case of Millerand, IIes-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec. Can J Civ Eng 16(6):924–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. PIANC (2008) Minimising harbour siltation, Tech. Rep. 102. World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure, Brussels, BeGoogle Scholar
  29. Reed CW, Brown ME, Sanchez A, Wu W, Buttolph AM (2011) The coastal modeling system flow model (CMS-Flow): past and present. Journal of Coastal Research. SI(59):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sanchez A, Brown M, Beck T, Styles R, Li H (2015) Long-term morphological modeling at coastal inlets. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulic Laboratory, Vicksburg, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  31. Sharaan M, Negm A, Iskander M, Nadaoka K (2016) Egyptian fishing ports challenges and opportunities, case study Mediterranean Sea ports. In: Proceedings of ports 2016 conference, pp 540–549. Available at https://www.ascelibrary.org/,  https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784479919.055
  32. Sharaan M, Negm A, Iskander M, Nadaoka K (2017) Questionnaire-based assessment of Mediterranean fishing ports, Nile delta, Egypt. Mar Policy 81:98–108. Available at https://www.linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0308597X16305498
  33. van Rijn LC (2005) Estuarine and coastal sedimentation problems. International Journal of Sediment Research 20(1):39–51Google Scholar
  34. van Rijn LC (2016) Harbour siltation and control measures. https://www.leovanrijn-sediment.com/papers/Harboursiltation2012.pdf
  35. Winterwerp JC (2005) Reducing harbor siltation I : methodology. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 131(6):258–266.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(2005)131:6(258) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yin J, Falconer RA, Chen Y, Probert SD (2000) Water and sediment movements in harbours. Appl Energy 67(3):341–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yuksek O (1995) Effects of breakwater parameters on shoaling of fishery harbors. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 121(1):13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zeydan BA, Elshinnawy IA (2003) Impact of the catchment area on water and sediment quality of Al Burullus Lake, Egypt. WIT Trans Ecol Environ 61:265–275Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt
  2. 2.Environmental Engineering Department, School of Energy and Environmental EngineeringEgypt-Japan University of Science and TechnologyAlexandriaEgypt
  3. 3.Hydrodynamic DepartmentCoastal Research InstituteAlexandriaEgypt
  4. 4.Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of EngineeringMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt
  5. 5.Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, School of Environment and SocietyTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations