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Shoreline shifting and its prediction using remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Sagar Island, West Bengal (India)

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Abstract

The shoreline position is difficult to predict but the trend of erosion or accretion can be determined by geospatial and statistical techniques which may help in reducing the loss of property. The study aims to assess the shoreline changes and prediction in Sagar Island, a delta of the Ganges, situated in West Bengal, India. Shorelines have been delineated by using Tasseled Cap Transformation techniques from the Landsat MSS (1975), Landsat TM (1989, 1991) and Landsat ETM+ (1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011) images. The uncertainty was calculated for every year for assessing the positional error related to shoreline extraction. Total shoreline change rate/year has also been calculated and the uncertainty of total shoreline change rate was found ±3.20 m/year. In the present study, End Point Rate (EPR) and Linear Regression (LR) methods have been used for shoreline change rate calculation and prediction of shoreline. Long term (1975–2002) and short term (2002–2011) erosion and accretion rates were calculated for the study area. Sagar is the biggest island of the Sundarban region; so, it was divided into three segments in order to analyze the change on a segment basis. It was observed that the most of erosion occurred in the Segment B (south Sagar). The rate of erosion was −7.91 and −7.01 m/year for the periods 1975–2002 and 2002–2011 respectively. The mean shoreline change rate was high in Segment B (South Sagar) with values of −6.46 m/year (1975–2002) but the rate was decreased into −5.25 m/year during the later period (2002–2011). The study reveals that most of the southern part of Sagar Island is vulnerable to high rate of shoreline erosion.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) for providing the satellite imageries without which the study would never be possible. The first author also acknowledges the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India for providing the facility to accomplish this work.

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Correspondence to Arnab Kundu.

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Nandi, S., Ghosh, M., Kundu, A. et al. Shoreline shifting and its prediction using remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Sagar Island, West Bengal (India). J Coast Conserv 20, 61–80 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-015-0418-4

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Keywords

  • Shoreline change rate
  • Shoreline prediction
  • Tasseled cap
  • End point rate
  • Linear regression model
  • Sagar Island
  • India