Journal of Coastal Conservation

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 1–11 | Cite as

Wave attenuation experiments over living shorelines over time: a wave tank study to assess recreational boating pressures

  • Jennifer E. Manis
  • Stephanie K. Garvis
  • Steven M. Jachec
  • Linda J. Walters


With sea level rise, erosion, and human disturbances affecting coastal areas, strategies to protect and stabilize existing shorelines are needed. One popular solution to stabilize while conserving intertidal habitat is the use of “living shoreline” techniques which are designed to mimic natural shoreline communities by using native plants and animals. However, little information is available on the success of living shoreline stabilization. This project evaluated the wave energy attenuation associated with living shorelines that contained Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) and/or Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) in a wave tank. Four living shoreline techniques were assessed, including a control (sediment only), oysters alone, cordgrass alone, and a combination of oysters plus cordgrass. Time since deployment (newly deployed, one-year after deployment) was also assessed to see how wave energy attenuation changed with natural oyster recruitment and plant growth. Wave energy was calculated for each newly deployed and one-year old shoreline stabilization treatment using capacitance wave gauges and generated waves that were representative of boat wakes in Mosquito Lagoon, a shallow-water estuary in Florida. All one-year old treatments attenuated significantly more energy than newly-deployed treatments. The combination of one-year old S. alterniflora plus live C. virginica was the most effective as this treatment reduced 67 % of the wave energy created by a single recreational boat wake, compared to bare sediment. Natural resource managers and landowners facing shoreline erosion issues can use this information to create effective stabilization protocols that preserve shorelines while conserving native intertidal habitats.


Wave tank Shoreline erosion Soft stabilization Spartina alterniflora Crassostrea virginica Wave attenuation 



We thank Melinda Donnelly, Rachel Odom, Paul Sacks, Joshua Solomon and Samantha Yuan for help with experimental setup. Also, thank you to Samuel McWilliams, Jeffery Coogan and Heath Hansell with the Surf Mechanics Lab at Florida Institute of Technology for wave tank assistance and data gathering. Thank you to UCF Biology Department, National Park Service, Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program, Brevard Zoo, Coastal Conservation Association, and the Boardman Foundation for funding living shoreline restoration projects in the Indian River Lagoon.


  1. Adams DA (1963) Factors influencing vascular plant zonation in North Carolina salt marshes. Ecology 44(3):445–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson ME, Smith JM, McKay SK (2011) Wave dissipation by vegetation. coastal and hydraulics engineering technical note. U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, 82pGoogle Scholar
  3. Arhan MF, Cavanie AG, Ezraty RS (1979) Determination of the period range associated to the design wave. Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas paper 3643, 12pGoogle Scholar
  4. Augustin LN, Irish JL, Lynett P (2009) Laboratory and numerical studies of wave damping by emergent and near-emergent wetland vegetation. Coast Eng 56(3):332–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber A, Walters L, Birch A (2010) Potential for restoring biodiversity of macroflora and macrofauna on oyster reefs in Mosquito Lagoon, Florida. Fla Sci 73(1):47–62Google Scholar
  6. Bauer BO, Lorang MS, Sherman DJ (2002) Estimating boat-wake-induced levee erosion using sediment suspension measurements. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 128(4):152–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck MW, Heck JL Jr, Able KW, Childers DL, Eggleston DB (2001) The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. Bioscience 51(8):633–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berman MR, Berquist H, Herman JD, Nunez K (2007) The Stability of Living Shorelines: An Evaluation. Gloucester Point, Virginia: College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Center for Coastal Resources Management, Final Report submitted to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Chesapeake Bay Program Office 106pGoogle Scholar
  9. Bilkovic DM, Roggero MM (2008) Effects of coastal development on nearshore estuarine nekton communities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 358:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boesch DF, Turner RE (1984) Dependence of fishery species on salt marshes: the role of food and refuge. Estuaries 7(4):460–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourne J (2000) Louisiana’s vanishing wetlands: going, going. Science 289(5486):1860–1863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bozek CM, Burdick DM (2005) Impacts of seawalls on saltmarsh plant communities in the great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire USA. Wetl Ecol Manage 13(5):553–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Broome SW, Rogers Jr. SM, Seneca ED (1992) Shoreline erosion control using marsh vegetation and lowcost structures. Raleigh, N.C. North Carolina Sea Grant Program Publication UNC-SG-92-12Google Scholar
  14. Brumbaugh RD, Coen LD (2009) Contemporary approaches for small-scale oyster reef restoration to address substrate versus recruitment limitation: a review and comments relevant for the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida (Carpenter 1864). J Shellfish Res 28(1):147–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buroker NE (1983) Population genetics of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica along the Atlantic coast and gulf of Mexico. Mar Biol 75:99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bush T, Houck M (2008) Plant fact sheet: Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Plant Materials Program, National Plant Data Center. Natural Resources Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture 2pGoogle Scholar
  17. Bushek D, Richardson D, Bobo MY, Coen LD (2004) Quarantine of oyster shell cultch reduces the abundance of Perkinsus marinus. J Shellfish Res 23(2):369–374Google Scholar
  18. Cahoon DR, Lynch JC (1997) Vertical accretion and shallow subsidence in a mangrove forest of southwestern Florida, USA. Mangrove Salt Marshes 1(3):173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cahoon DR, Ford MA, Hensel PF (2004) Ecogeomorphology of Spartina patens-dominated tidal marshes: soil organic matter accumulation, marsh elevation dynamics, and disturbance. In: Fagherazzi S, Marani M, Blum LK (eds) The Ecogeomorphology of Salt Marshes. Estuarine and Coastal Studies Series. American Geophysical Union pp. 247–266Google Scholar
  20. Castellan AC, Wall KL (2006) NOAA’s Shoreline Management Technical Assistance Toolbox. Management, Policy, Science, and Engineering of Nonstructural Erosion Control in the Chesapeake Bay. Proceedings of the Living Shoreline Summit pp 89–93Google Scholar
  21. U.S. Census Bureau (2012) USA Counties. URL:; accessed on June 2012
  22. Charlier RH, Chaineux MCP, Morcos S (2005) Panorama of the history of coastal protection. J Coast Res 21(1):79–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clark R (2008) Critically eroding beaches in Florida. Bureau of beaches and coastal systems. Division of Water Resources, Department of Environmental Protection, State of Florida, 77pGoogle Scholar
  24. Coen LD, Luckenbach MW, Breitburg DL (1999) The role of oyster reefs as essential fish habitat: A review of current knowledge and some new perspectives. In: Benaka, L.R. (ed) Fish Habitat: Essential Fish Habitat and Rehabilitation, American Fisheries Society Symposium No 22;438–454Google Scholar
  25. Cohen AN, Zabin CJ (2009) Oyster shells as vectors for exotic organisms. J Shellfish Res 28(1):163–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Currin CA, Chappell WS, Deaton A (2010) Developing alternative shoreline armoring strategies: the living shoreline approach in North Carolina. In: Shipman, H.; Dethier, M.; Gelfanbaum, G.; Fresh, K.L., and Dinicola, R.S. (eds) Puget Sound Shorelines and the Impacts of Armoring-Proceedings. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5254 pp 91–102Google Scholar
  27. Dalrymple RA, Kirby JT, Hwang PA (1984) Wave diffraction due to areas of energy dissipation. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 110(1):67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dame RF (2011) Ecology of marine bivalves: an ecosystem approach. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 283pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davis JL, Luscher AE (2008) Incentives to promote living shoreline techniques in the chesapeake Bay. Davis, J. And a. Luscher. 2008. Incentives to promote living shoreline techniques in the chesapeake Bay. In: Erdle S, Davis JL, Sellner KG (eds) Living shoreline summit proceedings. CRC contribution 08–164. VIMS, Gloucester Point, pp 111–116Google Scholar
  30. Dean RG (1976) Beach erosion: causes, processes, and remedial measures. Crit Rev Environ Control 6(3):259–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Development Core Team R (2011) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, http://www.Rproject.orgGoogle Scholar
  32. Dolan R, Vincent CL (1972) Analysis of shoreline changes, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Mod Geol 3:143–149Google Scholar
  33. Dubbleday PS (1975) Lagoonal circulation: ecological study of the lagoons around the John F. Kennedy space center. Master’s thesis, Florida Institute of Technology Melbourne, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  34. Duncan JR (1964) The effects of water table and tide cycle on swash-backwash sediment distribution and beach profile development. Mar Geol 2(3):186–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. El-Ashry TM (1971) Causes of recent increased erosion along United States shorelines. Geol Soc Am Bull 82(7):2033–2038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ellis JT, Sherman DJ, Bauer BO, Hart J (2002) Assessing the impact of an organic restoration structure on boat wake energy. J Coast Res Special Issue No 36:256–265Google Scholar
  37. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2012) Beaches and Coastal Systems. URL:, October 2012
  38. Foda MA (1995) Assessment of the Erosion Problem in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: A Critical Review of Previous Studies. Report to California Department of Boating and Waterways 32pGoogle Scholar
  39. Foda MA, Lu WH, Huang SM, Sturm A, Galla SE (1999) Boat waves contribution to the levee erosion problem in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Report to California Department of Boating and Waterways 88pGoogle Scholar
  40. Fonseca MS, Bell SS (1998) Influence of physical setting on seagrass landscapes near Beaufort, North Carolina, USA. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 171:109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fonseca MS, Cahalan JA (1992) A preliminary evaluation of wave attenuation by four species of seagrass. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 35(6):565–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fredsøe J, Deigaard R (1992) Mechanics of coastal sediment transport. Advanced series in ocean engineering, vol 3. World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated, River Edge, pp 260–289Google Scholar
  43. Garvis SK (2012) Quantifying the impacts of oyster reef restoration on oyster coverage, wave dissipation and seagrass recruitment in mosquito Lagoon, Florida. Masters thesis, University of Central Florida, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  44. Gleason ML, Elmer DA, Pien NC, Fisher JS (1979) Effects of stem density upon sediment retention by salt marsh cord grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 2(4):271–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grabowski JH, Brumbaugh RD, Conrad RF, Keeler AG, Opaluch JJ, Peterson CH, Piehler MF, Powers SP, Smyth AR (2012) Economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by oyster reefs. Bioscience 62(10):900–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Griggs GB, Fulton-Bennett K (1988) Rip-rap revetments and seawalls and their effectiveness along the central California coast. Shore Beach 56(2):3–11Google Scholar
  47. Grizzle RE (1990) Distribution and abundance of Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) (eastern oyster) and Mercenaria spp. (quahogs) in a coastal lagoon. J Shellfish Res 9(2):347–358Google Scholar
  48. Grizzle RE, Adams JR, Walters LJ (2002) Historical changes in intertidal oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reefs in a Florida lagoon potentially related to boating activities. J Shellfish Res 21(2):749–756Google Scholar
  49. Hall CR, Provancha JA, Oddy DM, Lowers RL, Drese JD (2001) Canaveral National Seashore water quality and aquatic resource inventory. Kennedy Space Center, Florida: NASA Technical Memorandum 2001–210261Google Scholar
  50. Hansell H (2012) Non-linear tidal distortion and the influence of the non-tidal forcing effects in a coastal lagoon. Masters thesis, Florida Institute of Technology, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  51. Harding JM, Mann R (2001) Oyster reefs as fish habitat: opportunistic use of restored reefs by transient fishes. J Shellfish Res 20(3):951–959Google Scholar
  52. Hasselmann K, Barnett TP, Bouws E, Carlson H, Cartwright DE, Enke K, Ewing JA, Gienapp H, Hasselmann DE, Kruseman P, Meerburg A, Müller P, Olbers DJ, Richter K, Sell W, Walden H (1973) Measurements of wind-wave growth and swell decay during the joint north sea wave project. Deutschen Hydrogrographischen Zeitschrift 8(12):1–95Google Scholar
  53. Hayden BP (1975) Storm wave climates at cape Hatteras, north Carolina: recent secular variations. Science 190:981–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heck KL, Hays G, Orth RJ (2003) Critical evaluation of the nursery role hypothesis for seagrass meadows. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 253:123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Herke WH (1971) Use of natural and semi-impounded Louisiana tidal marshes as nurseries for fishes and crustaceans. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  56. Hillyer TM, Stakhiv EZ, Sudar RA (1997) An evaluation of the economic performance of the US army corps of engineers shore protection program. J Coast Res 13(1):8–22Google Scholar
  57. Houser C (2010) Relative importance of vessel-generated and wind waves to salt marsh erosion in a restricted fetch environment. J Coast Res 26:230–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hughes SA (1993) Physical models and laboratory techniques in coastal engineering volume 7. World Scientific Publishing Company IncorporatedGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson DR, Funicelli NA (1991) Spawning of the red drum in Mosquito Lagoon, east-central Florida. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 14(1):74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jones CG, Lawton JH, Shachak M (1994) Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos 69(3):373–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keddy PA (1982) Quantifying within-lake gradients of wave energy: interrelationships of wave energy, substrate particle size and shoreline plants in Axe Lake, Ontario. Aquat Bot 14:41–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keddy PA (1983) Shoreline vegetation in Axe Lake, Ontario: effects of exposure on zonation patterns. Ecology 64(2):331–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Klein RJ, Nicholls RJ, Ragoonaden S, Capobianco M, Ashton J, Buckley EN (2001) Technological options for adaptation to climate change in coastal zones. J Coast Res 17(3):531–543Google Scholar
  64. Kneib RT (1997) The role of tidal marshes in the ecology of estuarine nekton. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 34:175–185Google Scholar
  65. Knutson PL, Brochu RA, Seelig WN, Inskeep MR (1982) Wave damping in Spartina alterniflora marshes. Wetlands 2(1):85–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Komar PD (2000) Coastal erosion- underlying factors and human impacts. Shore Beach 68(1):3–16Google Scholar
  67. Komar PD, Miller MC (1973) The threshold of sediment movement under oscillatory water waves. J Sediment Res 43(4):1101–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Korringa P (1952) Recent advances in oyster biology. Q Rev Biol 27(3):266–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kraus NC, McDougal WG (1996) The effects of seawalls on the beach: part I, an updated literature review. J Coast Res 12(3):691–701Google Scholar
  70. Kumara MP, Jayatissa LP, Krauss KW, Phillips DH, Huxham M (2010) High mangrove density enhances surface accretion, surface elevation change, and tree survival in coastal areas susceptible to sea-level rise. Oecologia 164(2):545–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Leonard LA, Croft AL (2006) The effect of standing biomass on flow velocity and turbulence in Spartina alterniflora canopies. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 69(3):325–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Limerinos JT, Smith W (1975) Evaluation of the causes of levee erosion in the Sacrament-San Joaqun Delta, California. U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Investigations No. 28–74Google Scholar
  73. Lohmann KJ, Salmon M, Wyneken J (1990) Functional autonomy of land and sea orientation systems in sea turtle hatchlings. Biol Bull 179(2):214–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. López RA, Marcomini SC (2013) Consequences of anthropic activity in Mar del Tuyu partido de La Costa, Buenos Aires, Argentine. Ocean Coast Manage 77(6):72–79Google Scholar
  75. Lugo-Fernandez A, Roberts HH, Wiseman WJ Jr (1998) Tide effects on wave attenuation and wave set-up on a Caribbean coral reef. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 47(4):385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Manley J, Power A, Walker RL (2009) Comparison of techniques for off-bottom culture of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), in Georgia. Occasional papers of the University of Georgia Marine Extension ServiceGoogle Scholar
  77. McKee KL, Cahoon DR, Feller IC (2007) Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 16(5):545–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Messaros RC, Bruno MS (2010) Laboratory investigation of bedform geometry under regular and irregular surface gravity waves. J Coast Res 27(6A):94–103Google Scholar
  79. Meyer DL, Townsend EC, Thayer GW (1997) Stabilization and erosion control value of oyster clutch for intertidal marsh. Rest Ecol 5(1):93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Minello TJ, Zimmerman RJ, Medina R (1994) The importance of edge for natant macrofauna in a created salt marsh. Wetlands 14(3):184–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Möller I (2006) Quantifying saltmarsh vegetation and its effect on wave height dissipation: results from a UK east coast saltmarsh. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 69(3):337–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Morgan PA, Burdick DM, Short FT (2009) The functions and values of fringing salt marshes in northern New England, USA. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 32(3):483–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Morris JT, Sundareshwar PV, Nietch CT, Kjerfve B, Cahoon DR (2002) Responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level. Ecology 83(10):2869–2877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morton RA, Miller TL, Moore LJ (2004) National assessment of shoreline change: Part 1, historical shoreline changes and associated coastal land loss along the US Gulf of Mexico. USGS Open File Report 2004–1043Google Scholar
  85. Orson R, Panageotou W, Leatherman SP (1985) Response of tidal salt marshes of the US Atlantic and gulf coasts to rising sea levels. J Coast Res 1(1):29–37Google Scholar
  86. Parnell KE, McDonald SC, Burke AE (2007) Shoreline effects of vessel wakes, Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. J Coast Res, Special Issue No 50:502–506Google Scholar
  87. Piazza BP, Banks PD, La Peyre MK (2005) The potential for created oyster shell reefs as a sustainable shoreline protection strategy in Louisiana. Rest Ecol 13(3):499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pilkey OH (1991) Coastal erosion. Episodes Int Geosci News Mag 14(1):45–51Google Scholar
  89. Pilkey OH, Wright HL (1988) Seawalls versus beaches. In: Krauss NC and Pilkey OH (eds.) The effects of seawalls on the beach, J Coast Res, Special Issue No. 4:41–67Google Scholar
  90. Provost MW (1973) Mean high water mark and use of tidelands in Florida. Fla Sci 36(1):50–65Google Scholar
  91. Rakocinski CF, Baltz DM, Fleeger JW (1992) Correspondence between environmental gradients and the community structure of marsh-edge fishes in a Louisiana estuary. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 80:135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Redfield AC (1965) Ontogeny of a salt marsh estuary. Science 147(3653):50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Redfield AC (1972) Development of a New England salt marsh. Ecol Monogr 42(2):201–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Reed DJ (1995) The response of coastal marshes to sea level rise: survival or submergence? Earth Surf Process Landf 20(1):39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roberts HH, Suhayda JN (1983) Wave-current interactions on a shallow reef, Nicaragua, Central America. Coral Reefs 1(4):209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Scheidt DM, Garreau CM (2007) Identification of watercraft use patterns in Canaveral National Seashore. Titusville, Florida: Canaveral National Seashore PIMS Final Report Project No. 1021131Google Scholar
  97. Schoellhamer DH (1996) Anthropogenic sediment resuspension mechanisms in a shallow microtidal estuary. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 43(5):533–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schroevers M, Huisman BJA, van der Wal M, Terwindt J (2011) Measuring ship induced waves and currents on a tidal flat in the Western Scheldt estuary. in current, waves and turbulence measurements. IEEE/OES 10:123–129Google Scholar
  99. Scyphers SB, Powers SP, Heck KL, Byron D (2011) Oyster reefs as natural breakwaters mitigate shoreline loss and facilitate fisheries. PLoS One 6(8):e22396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Smith NP (1986) The rise and fall of the estuarine intertidal zone. Estuaries 9(2):95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Smith NP (1987) An introduction to the tides of Florida’s Indian river lagoon. I. water levels. Fla Sci 50(1):49–61Google Scholar
  102. Smith NP (1993) Tidal and nontidal flushing of the Florida’s Indian river Lagoon. Estuaries 16(4):739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Soomere T, Kask J (2003) A specific impact of waves of fast ferries on sediment transport processes of Tallinn Bay. Proc Eston Acad Sci Biol Ecol 52(3):319–331Google Scholar
  104. Stiner JL, Walters LJ (2008) Effects of recreational boating on oyster reef architecture and species interactions. Fla Sci 71:31–44Google Scholar
  105. Swann L (2008) The use of living shorelines to mitigate the effects of storm events on Dauphin Island, Alabama, USA. Am Fish Soc Symp 64Google Scholar
  106. Tamburri MN, Zimmer-Faust RK, Tamplin ML (1992) Natural sources and properties of chemical inducers mediating settlement of oyster larvae: a re-examination. Biol Bull 183(2):327–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wall LM, Walters LJ, Grizzle RE, Sacks PE (2005) Recreational boating activity and its impact on the recruitment and survival of the oyster Crassostrea virginica on intertidal reefs in Mosquito Lagoon, Florida. J Shellfish Res 24(4):965–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Walters LJ, Roman A, Stiner J, Weeks D (2001) Water resource management plan, Canaveral national seashore. National Park Service, Canaveral National Seashore Report, TitusvilleGoogle Scholar
  109. Walters LJ, Johnson K, Wall LM, Martinez N, Grizzle R (2002) Shell movement and juvenile survival of the oyster on intertidal reefs adjacent to waters with intense boating activity in the Indian river Lagoon, Florida. J Shellfish Res 21(1):415–416Google Scholar
  110. Walters LJ, Stiner J, Donnelly M, Manis JE (2012) Protect Turtle Mound Archeological Site from Erosion and Climate Change Using Science-Based Living Shoreline Techniques. Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program Final ReportGoogle Scholar
  111. Walters LJ, Sacks P, Manis JE, Sacks J, Campbell D, Palmer J, Fusco K (2013) Oyster reef restoration in mosquito lagoon: long-term data and the impact on the 2012 brown tide. Poster session presented at the meeting of the Indian River Lagoon Symposium, Fort PierceGoogle Scholar
  112. Wentworth CK (1922) A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. J Geol 30(5):377–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yang SL (1998) The role of Scirpus marsh in attenuation of hydrodynamics and retention of fine sediment in the Yangtze estuary. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 47(2):227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yohe G, Neumann J (1997) Planning for sea level rise and shore protection under climate uncertainty. Clima Chang 37(1):243–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer E. Manis
    • 1
    • 3
  • Stephanie K. Garvis
    • 1
  • Steven M. Jachec
    • 2
  • Linda J. Walters
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Central Florida (UCF)OrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Department of EngineeringFlorida Institute of Technology (FIT)MelbourneUSA
  3. 3.Florida Park Service (FPS)OspreyUSA

Personalised recommendations