Journal of Coastal Conservation

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 339–357 | Cite as

Analyses on phenological and morphological variations of mangrove forests along the southwest coast of Bangladesh

  • Md. Shibly Anwar
  • Satoshi Takewaka


Drastic changes in river discharge and salinity levels are threatening the phenology and morphology of the coastal mangrove forests of the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. We have used AVHRR GIMMS (1985–2006) and MODIS (2005–2010) satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to identify the temporal variation of the phenology of the mangroves. Linear interpolation and Fourier-based adjustment were applied to remove noise from the NDVI time series. Then linear regression analysis on a single area (8 km ✕ 8 km) and a composite of 36 areas for three NDVI statistics the annual minimum, annual average, and annual maximum were performed--over the time periods 1985–1990, 1990–2000, 2000–2006 and 2005–2010 to identify possible functional changes in NDVI time series around the Sundarbans. Furthermore, we used fourteen LANDSAT images spanning the period 1989–2010 to estimate the spatiotemporal rate of shoreline changes over the three time periods 1989–2000, 2000–2006, and 2006–2010. A decreasing trend in the annual minimum NDVI was observed in most of the areas of the Sundarbans for the period 1990–2000. During the years 2000–2006, the trends of the three NDVI statistics became significantly positive, indicating an improvement of the mangrove phenology. In the period 2005–2010, a decreasing trend in all the NDVI variables was again dominant. The coast underwent rapid erosion from 1989–2000 and 2006–2010. However, the rate substantially declined between 2000 and 2006, when accretion was dominant. The advent of the upstream Farakka barrage caused a significant reduction in the Ganges-Gorai River discharge and increased the salinity in and around the Sundarbans. Our study concludes that this may be responsible for the degradation of mangrove phenology and accelerated erosion in the earlier and recent periods. In the interim, 2000–2006, improved river discharge and salinity levels due to the Ganges water sharing agreement (1996) and dredging of the Gorai River bed (1998–1999) enhanced the mangrove phenology and helped the coast to gain land.


Bangladesh Sundarbans NDVI Erosion Accretion Ganges 


  1. Alesheikh AA, Ghorbanali A, Nouri N (2007) Coastline change detection using remote sensing. Int J Environ Sci Tech 4:61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali A (1999) Climate change impacts and adaptation assessment in Bangladesh. Clim Res 12:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison MA (1998) Historical changes in the Ganges–Brahmaputra delta front. Journal of Coastal Res 14:1269–1275Google Scholar
  4. Baldi G, Nosetto MD, Aragon R, Aversa F, Paruelo JM, Esteban GJ (2008) Long-term satellite NDVI data sets: Evaluating their ability to detect ecosystem functional changes in South America. Sensors 8:5397–5425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ball MC (1988) Salinity tolerance in mangroves, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina. I. Water use in relation to growth, carbon partitioning and salt balance. Australian J of Plant Physiol 15:447–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ball MC, Pidsley SM (1995) Growth responses to salinity in relation to distribution of two mangrove species, Sonneratia alba and S. lanceolata, in northern Australia. Funct Ecol 9:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball MC, Cochrane MJ, Rawson HM (1997) Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Plant. Cell and Environ 20:1158–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brij G, Chauhan M (2006) Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarbans Mangrove Ecosystem. Aquat Sci- Research across Boundaries 68:338–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dee DP, Uppala SM, Simmons AJ, Berrisford P, Polia P, Kobayashi S (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Downton WJS (1982) Growth and osmotic relation of the mangrove Avicennia marina as influenced by salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 9:519–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eklundh L, and Jonsson P, (2011) Timesat 3.1 Software Manual, Lund University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  12. Fensholt R, Rasmussen K, Mbow C (2009) Evaluation of earth observation based long term vegetation trends-Inter comparing NDVI time series trend analysis consistency of Sahel from AVHRR GIMMS, Terra MODIS and SPOT VGT data. Remote Sensing of Envi 113:1886–1898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Giri C, Pengra B, Zhu Z, Singh A, Tieszen LL (2007) Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973 to 2000. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 73:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Groot JK, Groen P (2001) The gorai Re-Excavation project. Terra et Aqua 85(2001):21–25Google Scholar
  15. Haq SA (2010). Impact of climate change on “Sundarbans”, the largest mangrove forest: ways forward. 18th Commonwealth Forestry Conferences. Edinburgh, UKGoogle Scholar
  16. Hemer M, Jack Katzfey J, Hotan C (2011). The wind-wave climate of the Pacific Ocean. Report for the Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency.Google Scholar
  17. Hoque MA, Sarkar MSKA, Khan S, Moral M, Khurram AKM (2006) Present status of salinity rise in Sundarbans area and its effect on Sundari (Heritiera fomes) species. Agr Biol Sci 2:115–121Google Scholar
  18. Hussain MA, Saiful Islam, AKMS, Hasan MA and Bhaskaran B (2013) Changes of the seasonal salinity distribution at the Sundarbans coast due to impact of climate change. 4th International Conference on Water & Flood Management (ICWFM), pp. 637–648.Google Scholar
  19. Iftekhar MS, Islam MR (2004) Managing mangroves in Bangladesh: A strategy analysis. J Coast Conserv 10:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Iftekhar MS, Saenger P (2008) Vegetation dynamics in the Bangladesh Sundarbans mangroves: A review of forest inventories. Wet Ecol Manag 16:291–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Institute of Water Modelling (IWM) (2003) Sundarbans Biodiversity Conservation Project Surface Water Modeling. TA No. 3158-Ban (Contract COCS/00-696). Final Report, Volume 1.Google Scholar
  22. Islam MS (2003) Perspectives of the coastal and marine fisheries of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Ocean Coast Manage 46:763–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Islam SN, Gnauck A (2008) Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. Front Earth Sci 2:439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Islam SN, Gnauck A (2009) Threats to the Sundarbans mangrove wetland ecosystems from transboundary water allocation in the Ganges basin: A preliminary problem analysis. Int J Ecol Econo Stat (IJEES) 13:64–78Google Scholar
  25. Islam SN, Gnauck A (2011) Water shortage in the Gorai river basin and damage wetland ecosystem in Sundarbans, Bangladesh. 3rd Int. Conf. on Water and flood Management (ICWFM).Google Scholar
  26. Islam MR, Begum SF, Yamaguchi Y, Ogawa K (1999) The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in Bangladesh: Basin denudation and sedimentation. Hydrol Process 13:2907–2923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Julien Y, Sobrino JA (2010) Comparison of cloud-reconstruction methods for time series of composite NDVI data. Remote Sensing of Envi 114:618–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Karim MF, Mimura N (2008) Impact of climate changes and sea-level rise on cyclonic storm surge floods in Bangladesh. Glob Environ Chang 18:490–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Katebi MNA (2001) Sundarbans and forestry’. In: Haider R (ed) Cyclone’91 – An Environmental and Perceptional Study. BCAS, Dhaka, pp 79–100Google Scholar
  30. Khan AT, Vongvisessomjai S (2002) MIKE-11 application for salinity intrusion in southwest Bangladesh, paper presented in the 1st Asia Pacific software conference, Bangkok, 17–18 Jun, 2002Google Scholar
  31. Kuleli T (2010) Quantitative analysis of shoreline changes at the Mediterranean Coast in Turkey. Environ Monit Assess 167:387–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Levy GJ, Mammedov A, Goldstein D (2003) Sodicity and water quality effects on slaking of aggregates from semi-arid soils. Soil Sci 168:552–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mamedov AI, Levy GJ, Shainberg I, Letey J (2001) Wetting rate, sodicity, and soil texture effects on infiltration rate and runoff. Aust. J. Soil Res 39:1293–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Michael E, Peterson M (2006) Mangrove Forest Cover Change in the Bangladesh Sundarbans from 1989–2000: A Remote Sensing Approach. Geocarto International 21:5–12Google Scholar
  35. Miller RW, Donahue RL (1995) Soils in Our Environment, 7th edn. Prudence Hall, Englewood, Cliffs, NJ, 323Google Scholar
  36. Mirza MMQ (1998) Diversion of the ganges water at Farakka and its effects on salinity in Bangladesh. Environ Manage 22:711–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moulin S, Kergoat L, Voivy N, Dedieu G (1997) Global-scale assessment of vegetation phenology using NOAA/AVHRR satellite measurements. J Clim 10:1154–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nazim U, Anisul H (2010) Salinity response in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh due to Hydraulic and Hydrologic parameters. Int. J. Sustain. Agril Tech 6:01–07Google Scholar
  39. Pettorelli N, Vik JO, Mysterud A, Gaillard JM, Tucker CJ, Stenseth NC (2005) Using the satellite-derived NDVI to assess ecological responses to environmental change. Trends Ecol Evol 20:503–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pezeshki SR, De Laune RD, Patrick WH (1990) Differential response of selected mangroves to soil flooding and salinity: gas exchange and biomass partitioning. Can J For Res 20:869–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Qadir M, Schubert S (2002) Degradation processes and nutrient constraints in sodic soils. Land Degrad develop 13:275–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rahman AF, Danilo D, Bassil E (2011) Response of the Sundarbans coastline to sea level rise and decreased sediment flow: A remote sensing assessment. Remote Sensing of Envi 115:3121–3128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sarwar Md GM, Woodroffe CD (2013) Rates of shoreline change along the coast of Bangladesh. J Coast Conserv 17:515–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sellers PJ, Los SO, Tucker CJ, Justice CO, Dazlich DA, Collatz GJ, Randall DA (1996) A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs. Part 2: The generation of global fields of terrestrial biophysical parameters from satellite data. J Clim 9:706–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shainberg I, Letey J (1984) Response of soils to sodic and saline conditions. Hilgardia 52:1–57Google Scholar
  46. Sharmin S (2013) Climate change and its effect on coastal area of Bangladesh. AJST 4(12):15–20Google Scholar
  47. Sinha PC, Dube SK, Roy GD (1985) Influence of river on the storm surges in the Bay of Bengal. Proceedings, International Workshop on Operational Applications of Mathematical Models (Surface Water) in Developing Countries 26 Feb - 1 May, 1985, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  48. Slayback DA, Pinzon JE, Los SO, Tucker CJ (2003) Northern hemisphere photosynthetic trends 1982–99. Glob Change Biol 9:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith BD, Braulik G, Mansur R, Ahmed B (2009) Habitat selection of freshwater-dependent cetaceans and the potential effects of declining freshwater flows and sea-level rise in waterways of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. Bangladesh Aquatic Conserv: Mar Freshw Ecosyst 19:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sneyers R (1990) On the statistical analysis of series of observations, pp. 192. Tech. Note 143, WMO No. 415, Geneva.Google Scholar
  51. Suarez N, Medina E (2005) Salinity effect on plant growth and leaf demography of mangrove, Avicennia germinans L. Trees 19:721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tucker CJ, Pizon JE, Brown ME, Slayback A, Pak W, Mahoney R, Vermote EF, Saleous NE (2005) An extended AVHRR 8-km NDVI dataset compatible with MODIS and SPOT vegetation NDVI data. Int J Remote Sens 26:4485–4498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wahid MS, Babel SM, Bhuiyan RA (2007) Hydrologic monitoring and analysis in the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem, Bangladesh. J Hydrol 332:381–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ye ZT, Gu XF, Liu XL (1999) Analysis of spectral characteristics among different sensors by use of simulated RS image (in Chinese). J Wuhan Tech Univ Surv Map 24:295–299Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Systems and Information EngineeringUniversity of TsukubaTsukuba, IbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations