Journal of Coastal Conservation

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 79–87 | Cite as

Naturally and hatchery produced European trout Salmo trutta: do their marine survival and dispersal differ?

  • Bror Jonsson
  • Nina Jonsson


We tested whether marine survival and migration pattern differed between naturally and hatchery produced European trout Salmo trutta of different origins. The hatchery fish were released 150 m above the river estuary of the southwestern, Norwegian River Imsa, the home of the local population. Recaptures were used as proxy for survival. Wild and local hatchery fish survived better than transplanted hatchery stocks. Trout that were 1 year at release survived less well than 2-year olds, and small individuals less well than larger ones. Relative to their body size at release, populations that originated most distant from the River Imsa, the Baltic River Emån and the Norwegian mountain Lake Tunhovd, exhibited the poorest sea survival. At sea, trout chiefly moved less than 240 km from the river of release, but there were significant differences in dispersal among populations. Hatchery-produced River Emån and Lake Tunhovd trout moved farther from the River Imsa than the south Norwegian sea trout populations, and the marine distributions of the former were similar to that of the natural River Imsa trout. Large fish moved farther from the river than smaller ones. Straying to other rivers was low among wild and local hatchery-produced fish, and significantly lower than among most transplanted populations, and River Emån trout in particular. Thus, the River Imsa trout appeared better adapted to survival under the local conditions than non-local trout with consequences for optimal population management.


Carlin tagging North Sea Migration distance Population variation River Imsa Straying 



We are grateful to the staff at the NINA Research Station Ims for rearing the fish and sampling the trout in the Fish traps in the River Imsa daily during 36 years. The work was economically supported by the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research and the EU Interreg project “Living North Sea”.


  1. Allendorf FW, Waples RS (1996) Conservation and genetics of salmonid fishes. In: Avise JC, Hamrick JL (eds) Conservation genetics: Case histories from nature. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 238–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alm G (1950) The sea trout population in the Åva stream. Inst Freshw Res Drottningholm Rep 31:26–56Google Scholar
  3. Almodóvar A, Nicola GG (2004) Angling impact on conservation of Spanish stream-dwelling brown trout Salmo trutta. Fish Manag Ecol 11:173–182. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2400.2004.00402.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aubin-Horth N, Letcher BH, Hoffmann HA (2005) Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon. J Hered 96:261–278. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esi030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bams RA (1976) Survival and propensity for homing as affected by presence or absence of locally adapted paternal genes in two transplanted populations of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). J Fish Res Board Can 33:2716–2725. doi: 10.1139/f76-323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berg OK, Berg M (1987) Migration of sea trout, Salmo trutta L., from the Vardnes river in northern Norway. J Fish Biol 31:113–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1987.tb05218.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brabrand Å, Bremnes T, Saltveit SJ, Aass P (2008) Fiskeribiologiske undersøkelser i Pålsbufjorden [Fishery biological investigations in Pålsbufjorden]. LFI Rep 208:1–75 (In Norwegian)Google Scholar
  8. Candy JR, Beachham TD (2000) Patterns of homing and straying in southern British Columbia coded-wire tagged Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish Res 47:41–56. doi: 10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00124-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlin B (1955) Tagging of salmon smolts in the river Lagan. Inst Freshw Res Drottningholm Rep 36:57–74Google Scholar
  10. Cowx IG (1994) Stocking strategies. Fish Manag Ecol 1:15–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2400.1970.tb00003.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fleming IA, Jonsson B, Gross MR (1994) Phenotypic divergence of sea-ranched, farmed and wild salmon. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:2808–2824. doi: 10.1139/f94-280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freyhof J (2011) Salmo trutta. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2., downloaded 23 April 2012
  13. Hansen LP (1988) Effects of Carlin tagging on survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) released as smolts. Aquaculture 70:391–394. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(88)90122-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hansen MM (2002) Estimating the long-term effects of stocking domesticated trout into wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations: an approach using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples. Mol Ecol 11:1003–1015. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01495.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hansen MM, Mensberg KLD (1998) Genetic differentiation and relationship between genetic and geographical distance in Danish sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations. Heredity 81:493–504. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2540.1998.00408.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hansen LP, Jonsson N, Jonsson B (1993) Ocean migration of homing Atlantic salmon. Anim Behav 45:927–941. doi: 10.1006/anbe.1993.112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hard JJ, Heard WR (1999) Analysis of straying variation in Alaskan hatchery Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following transplantation. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:578–589. doi: 10.1139/f98-199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hasler AD, Scholz AD (1983) Olfactory imprinting and homing in salmon. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hindar K, Jonsson B (1995) Impacts of aquaculture and hatcheries on wild fish. In: Philipp DP, Epifanio JM, Marsden JE, Claussen JE, Wolotira RJ (eds) Protection of aquatic biodiversity. Proceedings of the World Fisheries Congress, Theme-3. Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi, pp 70–87Google Scholar
  20. Hoar WS (1976) Smolt transformation: evolution, behavior and physiology. J Fish Res Board Can 33:348–365. doi: 10.1139/f76-158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jensen KW (1968) Seatrout Salmo trutta L. of the river Istra, Western Norway. Inst Freshw Res Drottningholm Rep 48:185–213Google Scholar
  22. Jonsson B (1985) Life history patterns of freshwater resident and sea-run migrant brown trout in Norway. Trans Am Fish Soc 114:182–194. doi: 10.1577/1548-8659(1985)114<182:LHPOFR>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jonsson N, Jonsson B (2002) Migration of anadromous brown trout in a Norwegian river. Freshw Biol 47:1391–1401. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00873.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2006a) Life history of anadromous brown trout. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation & management. Blackwell Publ, Oxford, pp 196–223. doi: 10.1016/j.icesjms.2006.03.004 Google Scholar
  25. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2006b) Cultured salmon in nature: a review of their ecology and interactions with wild fish. ICES J Mar Sci 63:1162–1181. doi: 10.1016/j.icesjms.2006.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jonsson B, Jonsson N (2011) Ecology of Atlantic salmon and brown trout: Habitat as a template for life histories. Fish and Fisheries, vol 33. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jonsson B, L’Abée-Lund JH (1993) Latitudinal clines in life history variables of anadromous brown trout in Europe. J Fish Biol 43(Supple A):1–16. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1993.tb01175.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jonsson B, Jonsson N, Ruud-Hansen J (1989) Downstream displacement and life history variables of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in a Norwegian river. Physiol Ecol Jpn Spec 1:93–105Google Scholar
  29. Jonsson N, Jonsson B, Hansen LP (1990) Partial segregation in the timing of migration of Atlantic salmon of different ages. Anim Behav 40:313–321. doi: 10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80926-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jonsson N, Jonsson B, Hansen LP (1994) Sea ranching of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Fish Manag Ecol 1:67–76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2400.1970.tb00007.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jonsson N, Jonsson B, Hansen LP (1998) The relative role of density-dependent and density-independent survival in the life cycle of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. J Anim Ecol 67:751–762. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2656.1998.00237.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jonsson B, Jonsson N, Hansen LP (2003) Atlantic salmon straying from the River Imsa. J Fish Biol 62:641–657. doi: 10.1046/j.1095-8649.2003.00053.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jonsson B, Muniz IP, Jonsson N (2004) Sjøaureovervåkning langs Skagerrakkysten [Sea trout monitoring in Skagerrak]. NINA Minirapport 54:1–31 (In Norwegian)Google Scholar
  34. Klemetsen A, Amundsen PA, Dempson B, Jonsson B, Jonsson N, O’Connel M, Mortensen E (2003) Atlantic salmon, brown trout and Arctic charr: a review of their life histories. Ecol Freshw Fish 12:1–59. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0633.2003.00010.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Knutsen H, Knutsen JA, Jorde PE (2001) Genetic evidence for mixed origin of recolonized sea trout populations. Heredity 87:207–214. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2540.2001.00907.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Knutsen JA, Knutsen H, Olsen EM, Jonsson B (2004) Marine feeding of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) during winter. J Fish Biol 64:89–99. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2004.00285.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Labelle M (1992) Straying patterns of coho salmon stocks from southeast Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:1843–1855. doi: 10.1139/f92-204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lyse AA, Stefansson SO, Fernö A (1998) Behaviour and diet of sea trout post-smolts in a Norwegian fjord system. J Fish Biol 52:923–936. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1998.tb00593.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McDowall RM (2001) Anadromy and homing: two life-history traits with adaptive synergies in salmonid fishes? Fish Fish 2:78–85. doi: 10.1046/j.1467-2979.2001.00036.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McKeown NJ, Hynes RA, Duguid RA, Ferguson A, Prodöhl PA (2010) Phylogeographic structure of brown trout Salmo trutta in Britain and Ireland: glacial refugia, postglacial colonization and origins of sympatric populations. J Fish Biol 76:319–347. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02490.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Middlemast SJ, Stewart DC, Mackay S, Armstrong JD (2009) Habitat use and dispersal of post-smolt sea trout Salmo trutta in a Scottish sea loch system. J Fish Biol 74:639–651. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.02154.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Milner NJ, Harris GS, Gargan P, Beveridge M, Pawson MG, Walker A, Whelan K (2006) Perspectives on sea trout science and management. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation & management. Blackwell Publ, Oxford, pp 480–490Google Scholar
  43. Miyakoshi Y, Nagata M, Kitada S (2001) Effect of smolt size on postrelease survival of hatchery-reared masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou. Fish Sci 67:134–137. doi: 10.1046/j.1444-2906.2001.00209.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Okumuş I, Kurtoglu IZ, Atasaral Ş (2006) General overview of Turkish sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation & management. Blackwell Publ, Oxford, pp 115–127Google Scholar
  45. Olsen EM, Knutsen H, Simonsen JH, Jonsson B, Knutsen JA (2006) Seasonal variation in marine growth of sea trout, Salmo trutta, in coastal Skagerrak. Ecol Freshw Fish 15:446–452. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0633.2006.00176.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Østergaard S, Hansen MM, Loeschcke V, Nielsen EE (2003) Long-term temporal changes of genetic composition in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations inhabiting an unstable environment. Mol Ecol 12:3123–3135. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01976.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pascual MA, Quinn TP, Fuss H (1995) Factors affecting the homing of Columbia River hatchery-produced fall chinook salmon. Trans Am Fish Soc 124:308–320. doi: 10.1577/1548-8659(1995)124<0308:FATHOF>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pedersen S, Christiansen R, Glüsing H (2006) Comparison of survival, migration and growth in wild, offspring from wild (F1) and domesticated sea-run trout (Salmo trutta). In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation & management. Blackwell Publ, Oxford, pp 377–388Google Scholar
  49. Plaut I (2001) Critical swimming speed: its ecological relevance. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 131:131–140. doi: 10.1016/S1095-6433(01)00462-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Potter ECE, Russell IC (1994) Comparison of the distribution and homing of hatchery-reared and wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., from north-east England. Aquacult Fish Manag 25(Suppl 2):31–44Google Scholar
  51. Quinn TP (1984) Homing and straying in Pacific salmon. In: McCleave JD, Arnold GP, Dodson JJ, Neill WH (eds) Mechanisms of migration in fishes. Plenum Press, NewYork, pp 357–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Quinn TP (1993) A review of homing and straying of wild and hatchery-produced salmon. Fish Res 18:29–44. doi: 1016/10165-7836(93)90038-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Quinn TP (2005) The behavior and evolution of Pacific salmon and trout. Univ Wash Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  54. Quinn TP, Fresh K (1984) Homing and straying in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Cowlitz River Hatchery, Washington. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 41:1078–1082. doi: 10.1139/f84-126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Quinn TP, Nemeth RS, McIsaac DO (1991) Homing and straying patterns of fall chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River. Trans Am Fish Soc 120:150–156. doi: 10.1577/1548-8659(1991)120<0150:HASPOF>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ricker WE (1979) Growth rates and models. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Brett JR (eds) Fish physiology, vol 8. Academic, New York, pp 677–743Google Scholar
  57. Rikardsen AH, Diserud O, Elliott JM, Dempson JB, Sturlaugsson J, Jensen AJ (2007) The marine temperature and depth preference of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and sea trout (Salmo trutta), as recorded by data storage tags. Fish Oceanogr 16:436–447. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2419.2007.00445.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rosseland L (1979) Litt om bestander og beskatning av laks i Lærdalselva [Atlantic salmon of Lærdalselva River]. In: Gunnerød TB, Melquist P (eds) Vassdragsreguleringers Biologiske Virkninger i Magasiner og Lakseelver, Norges vassdrags- og elektrisitetsvesen, Direktoratet for vilt og ferskvannsfisk, Trondheim, pp 174–186 (In Norwegian)Google Scholar
  59. Ryman N (1981) Conservation of genetic resources: experiences from the brown trout (Salmo trutta). In: Ryman N (ed) Fish gene pools. Ecol Bull 34:61–74Google Scholar
  60. Sættem LM (1995) Gytebestander av laks og sjøaure. En sammenstilling av registreringer fra ti vassdrag i Sogn og Fjordane 1960–1994 [Spawning stocks of Atlantic salmon and sea trout in 10 rivers in the county of Sogn and Fjordane]. Utredning for DN 1995–7:1–107 (In Norwegian)Google Scholar
  61. Saloniemi I, Jokikokko E, Kalio-Nyberg I, Jutila E, Pasanen P (2004) Survival of reared and wild Atlantic salmon smolts: size matters more in bad years. ICES J Mar Sci 61:782–787. doi: 10.1016/j.icesjms.2004.03.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sandhaugen AI, Hansen LP (2001) Beskatning av atlantisk laks (Salmo salar L.) i Drammenselva. [Catch of Atlantic salmon in the River Drammenselva]. NINA Fagrapport 51:1–44 (In Norwegian, English summary)Google Scholar
  63. Shapovalov L, Taft AC (1954) The life histories of the steelhead rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri gairdneri) and silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with special reference to Waddell Creek, California, and recommendations regarding their management. Cal Dep Fish Game (USA). Fish Bull 98:1–375Google Scholar
  64. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry: The principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Stabell OB (1984) Homing and olfaction in salmonids. A critical review with special reference to the Atlantic salmon. Biol Rev 59:333–388. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.1984.tb00709.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Strand R, Finstad B, Lamberg A, Heggberget TG (2002) The effect of Carlin tags on survival and growth of anadromous Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. Environ Biol Fish 64:275–280. doi: 10.1023/A:1016091619937 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Svärdson G, Fagerström Å (1982) Adaptive differences in the long-distance migration of some trout (Salmo trutta L.) stocks. Inst Freshw Res Drottningholm Rep 60:51–80Google Scholar
  68. Thedinga JF, Wertheimer AC, Heintz RA, Maselko JM, Rice SD (2000) Effects of stock, coded-wire tagging, and transplant on straying of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in southeastern Alaska. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:2076–2085. doi: 10.1139/f00-163 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tilzey RDJ (1977) Repeat homing of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Lake Eucumbene, New South Wales, Australia. J Fish Res Board Can 34:1085–1094. doi: 10.1139/f77-165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Toivonen J, Tukhunen A (1975) Migration of sea trout along the coastal waters of Finland on the basis of tagging experiments. ICES CM M3:1–13Google Scholar
  71. Walker AF (2006) The rapid establishment of a resident brown trout population from sea trout progeny stocked in a fishless stream. In: Harris G, Milner N (eds) Sea trout: biology, conservation & management. Blackwell Publ, Oxford, pp 389–400Google Scholar
  72. Wolf PA (1951) A trap for the capture of fish and other organisms moving downstream. Trans Am Fish Soc 80:41–45. doi: 10.1577/1548-8659(1950)80[41:ATFTCO]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wolter C, Arlinghaus R (2003) Navigation impacts on freshwater fish assemblages: the ecological relevance of swimming performance. Rev Fish Biol Fish 13:63–89. doi: 10.1023/A:1026350223459 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wootton RJ (1998) Ecology of teleost fishes, 2nd edn. Fish and Fisheries Series 24. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian Institute for Nature ResearchOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations