Journal of Coastal Conservation

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 207–226 | Cite as

Changes in landscape and vegetation of coastal dunes in northwest Europe: a review

  • Sam Provoost
  • M. Laurence M. Jones
  • Sally E. Edmondson
Article

Abstract

In coastal dunes, landscape changes are a rule, rather than an exception. This paper gives an overview of changes in landscape and vegetation with a focus on the past century. The history of dunes is characterised by phases of sand drift, alternated with geomorphological stability. The historical development of dune woodland during these stable phases has been documented for sites all over Europe. Vegetation reconstructions of historical open dune habitats however is very difficult due to limited preservation of fossil remains. People have drastically altered coastal dune landscapes through centuries of exploitation and more recently development of the coast. Historical land use has generally pushed vegetation back into a semi-natural state. During roughly the past century a tendency of increasing fixation and succession is observed on coastal dunes throughout northwest Europe. Six causes of change are discussed. 1) Changes in land use, mainly abandonment of agricultural practices, have led to the development of late successional stages such as scrub and woodland. 2) Crashing rabbit populations due to myxomatosis in the 1950s caused vigorous grass growth and probably stimulated scrub development. 3) A general tendency of landscape fixation is observed due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. 4) Eutrophication, mainly due to atmospheric nitrogen deposition is clearly linked to grass encroachment on acidic but also on some calcareous dunes. 5) The impact of climate change on vegetation is still unclear but probably lengthening of growing season and maybe enhanced CO2 concentrations have led to an acceleration of succession. 6) A general anthropogenisation of the landscape occurs with rapid spread of non-native species as an important consequence. The reconstruction of a natural reference landscape is considered largely unattainable because of irreversible changes and the long tradition of human impact, in many cases since the development of the dunes. Two contradictory elements need reconciliation. First, the general acceleration of succession and scrub and woodland development in particular is partly caused by a decreased anthropogenic interference in the landscape and deserves more appreciation. Second, most biodiversity values are largely linked to open, early succession dune habitats and are threatened by the same tendency. Apart from internal nature management, in which grazing plays an important part, re-mobilisation of stable, senescent dunes is an important challenge for dune management.

Keywords

Coastal dunes Dune formation Landscape change Sand drift Dune fixation Vegetation succession Grass encroachment Scrub encroachment Land use Nitrogen deposition Nature management 

References

  1. Achermann B, Bobbink R (2003) Empirical critical loads for nitrogen. Proceedings of Expert Workshop 11–13 November 2002, Berne, Switzerland. Environmental Documentation No. 164. Air, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape SAEFL, BerneGoogle Scholar
  2. Adriani MJ, Terwindt JH (1974) Sand stabilisation and dune building. Government Publishing Office, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  3. Aggenbach CJS, Jalink MH (1999) Indicatorsoorten voor verdroging en eutrofiëring van plantengemeenschappen in droge duinen. Staatsbosbeheer, DriebergenGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson P, Romeril MG (1992) Mowing experiments to restore a species-rich sward on sand dunes in Jersey, Channel Islands, GB. In: Carter RWG, Curtis TGF, Sheehy-Skeffington MJ (eds) Coastal dunes; geomorphology, ecology and management for conservation. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 219–234Google Scholar
  5. Angus S (2001) The Outer Hebrides, volume 2: Moor and Machair. White Horse, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  6. Arens SM, Geelen LHWT (2006) Dune landscape rejuvenation by intended destabilisation in the Amsterdam water supply dunes. J Coast Res 22:1094–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arens SM, Slings Q, de Vries CN (2004) Mobility of a remobilised parabolic dune in Kennemerland, The Netherlands. Geomorphology 59:175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arens S, Geelen L, van der Hagen H, Slings QR (2007) Duurzame verstuiving n de Hollandse duinen: kans, droom of nachtmerrie. Arens Bureau voor Strand—en Duinonderzoek, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashall J, Duckworth JC, Holder C, Smart S (1992) Sand dune survey of Great Britain. Site report N°122 Newborough Warren and Forest, Anglesey, Ynys Mon, Wales. Joint Nature Conservation Commitee, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashall J, Duckworth JC, Holder C, Smart S (1995) Sand dune survey of Great Britain. Site report N°123 Aberffraw, Ynys Mon, Wales. Joint Nature Conservation Commitee, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  11. Baeteman C, Verhaeghe F, Thoen H, De Meulemeester J, Termote J, Dewilde M, De Ceunynck R (1984) Archeologie in de Westhoek. WAVO Berichten 4:1–72Google Scholar
  12. Baeyens G, Martínez ML (2008) Animal life on coastal dunes: From exploitation and prosecution to protection and monitoring. In: Martínez ML, Psuty NP (eds) Coastal dunes: ecology and conservation. Ecological studies 171, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg pp 279–296Google Scholar
  13. Bailey SD, Bristow CS (2004) Migration of parabolic dunes at Aberffraw, Anglesey, north Wales. Geomorphology 59(1–4):165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bakker TWM (1990) The geohydrology of coastal dunes. In: Bakker TW, Jungerius PD, Klijn JA (eds) Dunes of the European coasts: geomorphology, hydrology, soils. Catena supplement 18, pp 109–119Google Scholar
  15. Bauer BO, DavidsonArnott RGD, Nordstrom KF, Ollerhead J, Jackson NL (1996) Indeterminacy in aeolian sediment transport across beaches. J Coast Res 12:641–653Google Scholar
  16. Berry PM, Dawson TP, Harrison PA, Pearson RG (2002) Modelling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic envelope of species in Britain and Ireland. Global Ecol Biogeogr 11:453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Binggeli P, Eakin M, Macfadyen A, Power J, McConnel J (1992) Impact of the alien sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) on sand dune ecosystems in Ireland. In: Carter RWG, Curtis TGF, Sheehy-Skeffington MJ (eds) Coastal dunes; geomorphology, ecology and management for conservation. Rotterdam, Balkema, pp 325–337Google Scholar
  18. Bobbink R, Hornung M, Roelofs JGM (1998) The effects of air-borne nitrogen pollutants on species diversity in natural and semi-natural European vegetation. J Ecol 86:717–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boerboom JHA, Zagwijn WH (1966) Pollen-analytical investigations in the coastal dune area near the Hague, The Netherlands. Acta Bot Neerl 15:376–388Google Scholar
  20. Boomer I, Waddington C, Stevenson T, Hamilton D (2007) Holocene coastal change and geoarchaeology at Howick, Northumberland, UK. Holocene 17:89–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boorman LA (1989) The influence of grazing on British sand dunes. In: van der Meulen F, Jungerius PD, Visser J (eds) Perspectives in coastal dune management. Proceedings of the European Symposium Leiden, September 7–11, 1987. SPB academic Publishing, Den Haag, pp 121–124Google Scholar
  22. Boorman LA, Fuller RM (1982) Effects of added nutrients on dune swards grazed by rabbits. J Ecol 70:345–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Borówka RK (1990) Coastal dunes in Poland. In: Bakker TW, Jungerius PD, Klijn JA (eds) Dunes of the European coasts: Geomorphology, hydrology, soils. Catena supplement 18, pp 25–30Google Scholar
  24. Brooks A (1979) Coastlands, a practical conservation handbook. British trust for volunteers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Christensen S, Johnsen I (2001) The lichen-rich coastal heath vegetation on the isle of Anholt, Denmark—description, history and development. J Coast Conserv 7:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Christiansen C, Dalsgaard K, Moller JT, Bowman D (1990) Coastal dunes in Denmark: Chronology in relation to sea level. In: Bakker TW, Jungerius PD, Klijn JA (eds) Dunes of the European coasts: Geomorphology, hydrology, soils. Catena supplement 18, pp 61–70Google Scholar
  27. Clarke ML, Rendell HM (2009) The impact of North Atlantic storminess on western European coasts: a review. Quatern Int 195:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clarke M, Rendell H, Tastet JP, Clave B, Masse L (2002) Late-Holocene sand invasion and North Atlantic storminess along the Aquitaine coast, southwest France. Holocene 12:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clemmensen LB, Murray A (2006) The termination of the last major phase of aeolian sand movement, coastal dunefields, Denmark. Earth Surf Proc Land 31:795–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clemmensen LB, Andreasen F, Nielsen ST, Sten E (1996) The late Holocene coastal dunefield at Vejers, Denmark: characteristics, sand budget and depositional dynamics. Geomorphology 17:79–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clemmensen LB, Andreasen F, Heinemeier J, Murray A (2001a) A Holocene coastal aeolian system, Vejers, Denmark: landscape evolution and sequence stratigraphy. Terra Nova 13:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clemmensen LB, Pye K, Murray A, Heinemeier J (2001b) Sedimentology, stratigraphy and landscape evolution of a Holocene coastal dune system, Lodbjerg, NW Jutland, Denmark. Sedimentology 48:3–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dargie TCD (2000) Sand dune vegetation survey of Scotland, national report. Scottish Natural Heritage, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  34. De Bruyne C (1905) Over onze duinflora. Handelingen van het 9de Vlaamsch Natuur- en Geneeskundig Congres, AalstGoogle Scholar
  35. De Ceunynck R (1985) The evolution of the coastal dunes in the western Belgian coastal plane. Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart 35:33–41Google Scholar
  36. De Ceunynck R (1992) Het duinlandschap, ontstaan en evolutie. In: Termote J (ed) Tussen land en zee, het duingebied van Nieuwpoort tot De Panne. Lannoo, Tielt, pp 18–45Google Scholar
  37. De Ceunynck R, Thoen H (1981) The iron age settlement at De Panne-Westhoek, ecological and geological context. Helinium 1:21–42Google Scholar
  38. De Jong J (1984) Age and vegetational history of the coastal dunes in the Frisian islands, the Netherlands. Geologie en Mijnbouw 63:269–275Google Scholar
  39. De Raeve F (1989) Sand dune vegetation and management dynamics. In: van der Meulen F, Jungerius PD, Visser J (eds) Perspectives in coastal dune management. Proceedings of the European Symposium Leiden, September 7–11, 1987. SPB academic Publishing, Den Haag, pp 99–109Google Scholar
  40. de Rooij-van der Goes P, van Dijk CL, Van der Putten WH, Jungerius PD (1997) Effects of sand movement by wind on nematodes and soil-borne fungi in coastal foredunes. J Coast Conserv 3:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. De Smet J (1961) Onze duinen in 1828. Biekorf 9:256–266Google Scholar
  42. Delaney C, Devoy R (1995) Evidence from sites in western Ireland of late Holocene changes in coastal environments. Mar Geol 124:273–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Doing H (1993) Het Silene-Tortuletum (ass. nov.), een karakteristieke associatie van het zeedorpenlandschap. Stratiotes 6:40–52Google Scholar
  44. Dopheide JCR, Verstraten JM (1995) The impact of atmospheric deposition on the soil and soil water composition of the coastal dry dunes. Report of the Laboratory of Physical Geography and Soil Science, University of Amsterdam, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  45. Drees M, Olff H (2001) Rabbit grazing and rabbit counting. In: Houston JA, Edmondson SE, Rooney PJ (eds) Coastal dune management, shared experience of European conservation practice. Proceedings of the European symposium Coastal Dunes of the Atlantic Biogeographical Region, Southport, northwest England, september 1998. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, pp 86–94Google Scholar
  46. Edmondson SE (2009) Non-native plants on the Sefton Coast sand-dunes. Proceedings of the Sefton Natural Coast Conference, Southport, September 2008Google Scholar
  47. Edmondson SE, Gateley PS, Rooney PJ, Sturgess P (1993) Plant communities and succession. In: Atkinson D, Houston J (eds) The sand dunes of the Sefton coast. National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside, Liverpool, pp 65–84Google Scholar
  48. Edmondson SE, Gateley PS, Nissenbaum DA (1999) National sand dune survey, Sefton Coast, Division 6 Ainsdale Sand Dunes National Nature Reserve. Nature Conservancy Council and Sefton Council, SeftonGoogle Scholar
  49. Ehrenburg A, Geelen LHWT, Ketner P, Baeyens G (1988) Een halve eeuw landschapsontwikkeling in de Haasvelderduinen. De Levende Natuur 5:150–157Google Scholar
  50. Favennec J (2002) Connaissance et gestion durable des dunes de la côte Atlantique. Office National des Forêts, ParisGoogle Scholar
  51. Fowler DO, Donoghue M, Muller JBA, Smith RI, Dragosits U, Skiba U (2004) A chronology of nitrogen deposition in the UK between 1900 and 2000. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 4:9–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fukarek F (1961) Die Vegetation des Darss und ihre Geschichte. Fisher, JenaGoogle Scholar
  53. Gateley PS, Michell PE (2004) Sand dune survey of the Sefton Coast, 2003/4. TEP, WarringtonGoogle Scholar
  54. Gilbertson DD, Schwenninger JL, Kemp RA, Rhodes EJ (1999) Sand-drift and soil formation along an exposed North Atlantic coastline: 14, 000 years of diverse geomorphological, climatic and human impacts. J Archaeol Sci 26:439–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grootjans AP, Hendriksma P, Engelmoer M, Westhoff V (1988) Vegetation dynamics in a wet dune slack. 1. Rare species decline on the Wadden-Island of Schiermonnikoog in the Netherlands. Acta Bot Neerl 37:265–278Google Scholar
  56. Grootjans AP, Adema EB, Bekker RM, Lammerts EJ (2008) Why young coastal dune slacks sustain a high biodiversity. In: Martinez ML, Psuty NP (eds) Coastal dunes: Ecology and conservation. Ecological studies 171 Springer, Berlin, pp 85–102Google Scholar
  57. Guilcher A, Hallégouët B, Meur C, Talec P, Yoni C (1992) Exceptional formation of present-day dunes in the Baie d’Audierne, Southwestern Brittany, France. In: Carter RWG, Curtis TGF, Sheehy-Skeffington MJ (eds) Coastal dunes; geomorphology, ecology and management for conservation. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 15–23Google Scholar
  58. Hansom JD (1988) Coasts. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  59. Hansom JD, Angus S (2006) Machair nan Eilean Siar (Machair of the Western Isles). Scot Geogr J 121(4):401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Heil GW, Diemont WM (1983) Raised nutrient levels change heathland into grassland. Vegetatio 53:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hewett DG (1985) Grazing and mowing as management tools on dunes. Vegetatio 62:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hodgkin SE (1984) Scrub encroachment and its effects on soil fertility on Newborough Warren, Anglesey, Wales. Biol Conserv 29:99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Holder FW (1953) The changing flora of the South Lancashire dunes. North West Nat 1:451–452Google Scholar
  64. Huddart D, Roberts G, Gonzalez S (1999a) Holocene human and animal footprints and their relationships with coastal environmental change, Formby Point, NW England. Quatern Int 55:29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Huddart D, Gonzalez S, Roberts G (1999b) The archaeological record and Mid-Holocene marginal coastal palaeoenvironments around Liverpool Bay. J Quaternary Sci 14:563–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Isermann M (2008a) Classification and habitat characteristics of plant communities invaded by the non-native Rosa rugosa Thunb. in NW Europe. Phytocoenologia 38:133–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Isermann M (2008b) Expansion of Rosa rugosa and Hippophae rhamnoides in coastal grey dunes: Effects at different spatial scales. Flora 203:273–280Google Scholar
  68. Isermann M, Cordes H (1992) Changes in dune vegetation on Spiekeroog (East Friesian islands) over a 30 year period. In: Carter RWG, Curtis TGF, Sheehy-Skeffington MJ (eds) Coastal dunes; geomorphology, ecology and management for conservation. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 201–209Google Scholar
  69. Izhaki I, Walton PB, Safriel UN (1991) Seed shadows generated by frugivorous birds in an eastern Mediterranean scrub. J Ecol 79:575–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jeffrey DW (1977) North Bull Island, Dublin Bay: A modern coastal natural history. Royal Dublin Society, DublinGoogle Scholar
  71. Jelgersma S, De Jong J, Zagwijn WH, Van Regteren Altena JF (1970) The coastal dunes of the western Netherlands; geology, vegetational history and archeology. Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 21:93–167Google Scholar
  72. Jensen F (1994) Dune management in Denmark: application of the nature protection act of 1992. J Coast Res 10(2):263–269Google Scholar
  73. Joly C (2004) Histoire végétale d’une tourbière littorale: le Marais des Bourbes (Olonne-sur-Mer, Vendée). Ann Paleont 90:187–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jones CR, Houston J, Bateman D (1993) A history of human influence on the coastal landscape. In: Atkinson D, Houston J (eds) The sand dunes of the Sefton coast. National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside, Liverpool, pp 3–17Google Scholar
  75. Jones MLM, Reynolds B, Stevens PA, Norris D, Emmett BA (2002) Changing nutrient budgets of sand dunes: consequences for the nature conservation interest and dune management, 1. A review. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Project No: C01919, BangorGoogle Scholar
  76. Jones MLM, Wallace HL, Norris D, Brittain SA, Haria S, Jones RE, Rhind PM, Reynolds BR, Emmett BA (2004) Changes in vegetation and soil characteristics in coastal sand dunes along a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Plant Biology 6:598–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jones MLM, Sowerby A, Wallace HA (2007) Better understanding of soil resources, dune stabilisation and rates of soil development on Welsh dune systems. Report to Countryside Council for Wales. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, BangorGoogle Scholar
  78. Jones MLM, Sowerby A, Williams DL, Jones RE (2008) Factors controlling soil development in sand dunes: evidence from a coastal dune soil chronosequence. Plant and Soil 307:219–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jun R, Clement RB, Roze F (2004) Primary succession of bryophyte and lichen communities in non-forested Atlantic coastal dunes: the example of the Pointe d’Arcay (France). Nova Hedwigia 78:453–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ketner-Oostra R (1993) Buntgrasduin op Ter Schellingen na 25 jaar weer onderzocht. De Levende Natuur 1:10–16Google Scholar
  81. Ketner-Oostra R, Sýkora KV (2004) Decline of lichen-diversity in calcium-poor coastal dune vegetation since the 1970s, related to grass and moss encroachment. Phytocoenologia 34:521–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Klijn JA (1990a) The younger dunes in The Netherlands; chronology and causation. In: Bakker TW, Jungerius PD, Klijn JA (eds) Dunes of the European coasts: geomorphology, hydrology, soils. Catena supplement 18, pp 89–100Google Scholar
  83. Klijn JA (1990b) Dune forming factors in a geological context. In: Bakker TW, Jungerius PD, Klijn JA (eds) Dunes of the European coasts: geomorphology, hydrology, soils. Catena supplement 18, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  84. Knight J, Burningham H (2007) Coastal morphodynamics and prehistoric human occupation, County Donegal, NW Ireland. J Coast Res 104–108Google Scholar
  85. Kooijman AM, van der Meulen F (1996) Grazing as a control against ‘grass-encroachment’ in dry dune grasslands in the Netherlands. Landscape Urban Plan 34:323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kooijman AM, Smit A (2001) Grazing as a measure to reduce nutrient availability and plant productivity in acid dune grasslands and pine forests in The Netherlands. Ecol Eng 17:63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kooijman AM, Besse M (2002) The higher availability of N and P in lime-poor than in lime-rich coastal dunes in the Netherlands. J Ecol 90:394–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kooijman AM, Dopheide JCR, Sevink J, Takken I, Verstraten JM (1998) Nutrient limitations and their implications on the effects of atmospheric deposition in coastal dunes; lime-poor and lime-rich sites in the Netherlands. J Ecol 86:511–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kuijper W (1993) Vroegere vegetaties in de natte duinvalleien ten zuiden van Zandvoort. Duin 2:7–9Google Scholar
  90. Lambeck K (1995) Late Devensian and Holocene shorelines of the British Isles and North Sea from models of glacio-hydro-isostatic rebound. J Geol Soc London 152:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lancaster N (1988) Development of linear dunes in the southwestern Kalahari, Southern-Africa. J Arid Environ 14:233–244Google Scholar
  92. Lawesson JE, Wind P (2002) Oak dune forests in Denmark and their ecology. Forest Ecol Manag 164:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Leinert ACD, Keen DH, Jones RL, Wells JM, Smith DE (2000) Mid-Holocene environmental changes in the Bay of Skaill, Mainland Orkney, Scotland: an integrated geomorphological, sedimentological and stratigraphical study. J Quaternary Sci 15:509–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lemauviel S, Gallet S, Roze F (2003) Sustainable management of fixed dunes: example of a pilot site in Brittany (France). C R Biol 326:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Locock M (1996) Merthyr Mawr Warren, Bridgend: archaeological assessment. Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Report no.96/082, SwanseaGoogle Scholar
  96. Louwe Kooijmans J (1993) An early/middle bronze age multiple burial at Wassenaar, the Netherlands. Analecta Praehist Leidensia 26:1–20Google Scholar
  97. Massart J (1912) La cinquantième herborisation générale de la Société royale de botanique de Belgique sur le littoral Belge. Bull Soc Roy Bot Belg 51:1–185Google Scholar
  98. McInnes IJ (1964) The neolithic and early bronze age pottery from Luce Sands, Wigtownshire. Proc Soc Ant Scot 97:40–81Google Scholar
  99. McKenna J, O’Hagan AM, Power J, MacLeod M, Cooper A (2007) Coastal dune conservation on an Irish commonage: community-based management or tragedy of the commons? Geogr J 173:157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mohd-Said MN (1999) Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen inputs on dune grassland. PhD thesis, University of Wales, BangorGoogle Scholar
  101. Mörner N-A (1995) Recorded sea level variability int he Holocene and expected future change. In: Eisma D (ed) Climate change: Impact on coastal habitation. CRC, Larkfield, pp 17–28Google Scholar
  102. Mourik J, Ehrenburg A, van Til M (1995) Dune landscape near Zandvoort aan Zee, The Netherlands: use and management past and present. In: Healy D (ed) Directions in European coastal management. Samara, Cardigan, pp 483–487Google Scholar
  103. NEGTAP (2001) Transboundary air pollution; acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone in the UK. National Expert Group on Transboundary Air Pollution, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  104. Nowak RS, Ellsworth DS, Dmith SD (2004) Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2—do photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early predictions. New Phytol 162:253–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Olsson H (1974) Studies on South Swedish sand vegetation. UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  106. Ovesen CH (2001) The Management of Danish dunes today: theory and practice. In: Houston JA, Edmondson SE, Rooney PJ (eds) Coastal dune management, shared experience of European conservation practice. Proceedings of the European symposium Coastal Dunes of the Atlantic Biogeographical Region, Southport, northwest England, september 1998. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, pp 302–305Google Scholar
  107. Ovington JD (1950) The afforestation of Culbin Sands. J Ecol 38:303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Owen NW, Kent M, Dale P (2000) Ecological effects of cultivation on the machair sand dune systems of the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. J Coast Conserv 6:155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Peterken G (1981) Woodland conservation and management. Chapmann & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Petit-Berghem Y (1996) Etude de la dynamique des milieus forestiers du littoral du nord de la France. PhD Université des Sciences et Technologies, UFR de Geographie, LilleGoogle Scholar
  111. Plassmann K, Brown N, Jones MLM, Edwards-Jones G (2008) Can atmospheric input of nitrogen affect seed bank dynamics in habitats of conservation interest? The case of dune slacks. Appl Veg Sci 11:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Plassmann K, Edwards-Jones G, Jones MLM (2009) The effects of low levels of nitrogen deposition and grazing on dune grassland. Sci Tot Environ 407:1391–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Provoost S, Van Landuyt W (2001) The flora of the Flemish coastal dunes (Belgium) in a changing landscape. In: Houston JA, Edmondson SE, Rooney PJ (eds) Coastal dune management, shared experience of European conservation practice. Proceedings of the European symposium Coastal Dunes of the Atlantic Biogeographical Region, Southport, northwest England, september 1998. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, pp 393–401Google Scholar
  114. Provoost S, Bonte D (2004) Biodiversiteit en natuurbehoud. In: Provoost S, Bonte D (eds) Levende duinen: een overzicht van de biodiversiteit aan de Vlaamse kust. Mededelingen van het Instituut voor Natuurbehoud 22 Brussel, pp 366–415Google Scholar
  115. Pye K (2001) Long-term geomorphological changes and how they may affect the dune coasts of Europe. In: Houston JA, Edmondson SE, Rooney PJ (eds) Coastal dune management, shared experience of European conservation practice. Proceedings of the European symposium Coastal Dunes of the Atlantic Biogeographical Region, Southport, northwest England, september 1998. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, pp 17–23Google Scholar
  116. Pye K, Neal A (1993) Late Holocene dune formation on the Sefton coast, northwest England. In: Pye K (ed) The dynamics and environmental context of aeolian sedimentary systems. Geological Society London—Special Publications, pp 201–217Google Scholar
  117. Pye K, Neal A (1994) Coastal dune erosion at Formby Point, North Merseyside, England—causes and mechanisms. Mar Geol 119:39–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ranwell DS (1959) Newborough Warren, Anglesey 1: the dune system and dune slack habitat. J Ecol 47:571–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ranwell DS (1960a) Newborough Warren, Anglesey 2: plant associes and succession cycles of the sand dune and dune slack vegetation. J Ecol 48:117–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ranwell DS (1960b) Newborough Warren, Anglesey 3: changes in the vegetation on parts of the dune system after the loss of rabbits by Myxomatosis. J Ecol 48:385–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ranwell DS, Boar R (1986) Coast dune management guide. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  122. Remke E, Brouwer E, Kooijman A, Blindow I, Esselink H, Roelofs JGM (2009) Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea. Environ Pollut 157:792–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rhind PM, Jones R (2009) A framework for the management of sand dune systems in Wales. J Coast Conserv 13:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rhind PM, Blackstock TH, Hardy HS, Jones RE, Sandison W (2001) The evolution of Newborough warren dune system with particular reference to the past fout decades. In: Houston J, Edmondson SE, Rooney PJ (eds) Coastal dune management, shared experience of european conservation practice. Liverpool University press, Liverpool, pp 345–379Google Scholar
  125. Rhind PM, Jones R, Jones MLM (2008) Confronting the impact of dune stabilization and soil development on the conservation status of sand dune systems in Wales. Proc. International conference on management and restoration of coastal dunes, Santander, Spain (ICCD 2007). Universidad de Cantabria, pp 143–152Google Scholar
  126. Rodwell JS (ed) (2000) British Plant Communities volume 5. Maritime communities and vegetation of open habitats, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  127. Root TL, Price JT, Hall KR, Schneider SH, Rosenzweig C, Pounds JA (2003) Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature 421:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ross S (1992) The Culbin Sands—fact and fiction. University of Aberdeen, Centre for Scottish Studies, AberdeenGoogle Scholar
  129. Savukyniené N, Moe D, Usaityte D (2003) The occurrence of former heathland vegetation in the coastal areas of the south-east Baltic sea, in particular Lithuania: a review. Veg Hist Archaeobot 12:165–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Saye SE, Pye K (2007) Implications of sea level rise for coastal dune habitat conservation in Wales, UK. J Coast Conserv 11:31–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Schubert R (1996) Vegetationsdynamik in Naturschutzgebieten Hiddensees. 1. NSG Dünenheide. Arch Nat Lands 34:269–303Google Scholar
  132. Slings QL (1994) De kalkgraslanden van de duinen. De Levende Natuur 4:120–130Google Scholar
  133. Smith PH (1999) The sands of time, an introduction to the sand dunes of the Sefton Coast. National Museums and Galeries on Merseyside and Sefton Council, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  134. Sommerville AA, Hansom JD, Houslay RA, Sanderson DCW (2007) Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of coastal aeolian sand accumulation in Sanday, Orkney Islands, Scotland. Holocene 17:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Spencer P (1975) Habitat changes in coastal dune areas: the molluscan evidence. In: Evans JG, Limbrey S, Cleere H (eds) The effect of man in the highland zone. CBA Research Report 11, pp 96–103Google Scholar
  136. Stace CA (2001) New flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  137. Steers JA (1937) The Culbin sands and Burghead Bay. Geogr J 90(6):498–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Szkornik K, Gehrels WR, Murray AS (2008) Aeolian sand movement and relative sea-level rise in Ho Bugt, western Denmark, during the ‘Little Ice Age’. Holocene 18:951–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Talbot MR (1984) Late Pleistocene rainfall and dune building in the Sahel. Palaeoecol Afr 16:203–214Google Scholar
  140. Tastet JP, Pontee NI (1998) Morpho-chronology of coastal dunes in Medoc. A new interpretation of Holocene dunes in southwestern France. Geomorphology 25:93–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. ten Harkel MJ, van der Meulen F (1996) Impact of grazing and atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the vegetation of dry coastal dune grasslands. J Veg Sci 7:445–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Termote J (1992) Wonen op het duin, de bewoningsgeschiedenis van het duingebied tot aan de Franse revolutie. In: Termote J (ed) Tussen land en zee, het duingebied van Nieuwpoort tot De Panne. Lannoo, Tielt, pp 46–87Google Scholar
  143. Thomas AS (1960) Changes in vegetation since the advent of Myxomatosis. J Ecol 48:287–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Thompson HV (1994) The rabbit in Britain. In: Thompson HV, King CM (eds) The European rabbit: the history and biology of a successful colonizer. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 64–107Google Scholar
  145. Tsoar H (2005) Sand dunes mobility and stability in relation to climate. Physica A 357:50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. van den Berg LJL, Tomassen HBM, Roelofs JGM, Bobbink R (2005) Effects of nitrogen enrichment on coastal dune grassland: a mesocosm study. Environ Pollut 138:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. van der Hagen HGJM, Geelen LHWT, de Vries CN (2008) Dune slack restoration in Dutch mainland coastal dunes. J Nat Conserv 16:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. van der Laan D (1985) Changes in the flora and vegetation of the coastal dunes of Voorne (The Netherlands) in relation to environmental changes. Vegetatio 61:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. van der Maarel E, Boot R, van Dorp D, Rijntjes J (1985a) Vegetation succession on the dunes near Oostvoorne, The Netherlands—a comparison of the vegetation in 1959 and 1980. Vegetatio 58:137–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. van der Maarel E, De Cock N, De Wildt E (1985b) Population dynamics of some major woody species in relation to long-term succession on the dunes of Voorne. Vegetatio 61:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. van der Maarel E, van der Maarel-Versluys M (1996) Distribution and conservation status of littoral vascular plant species along the European coasts. J Coast Conserv 2:73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. van der Meulen F (1982) Vegetation changes and water catchment in a Dutch coastal dune area. Biol Conserv 24:305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. van der Meulen F (1990) European dunes: consequences of climate change and sealevel rise. In: Bakker TW, Jungerius PD, Klijn JA (eds) Dunes of the European coasts: geomorphology, hydrology, soils. Catena supplement 18, pp 209–223Google Scholar
  154. van der Meulen F, van der Maarel E (1989) Coastal defence alternatives and nature development perspectives. In: van der Meulen F, Jungerius PD, Visser J (eds) Perspectives in coastal dune management. Proceedings of the European Symposium Leiden, September 7–11, 1987. SPB academic Publishing, Den Haag, pp 183–195Google Scholar
  155. van der Meulen F, Jungerius PD, Visser J (1989) Perspectives in coastal dune management. SPB, Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  156. van der Putten WH, van Dijk C, Peters BAM (1993) Plant-specific soil-borne diseases contribute to succession in fordune vegetation. Nature 362:53–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. van der Vegte FW, Faber J, Kuiters L (1985) Vegetation, land use and management of the inner-dune zone in the North-Holland Dune Reserve, The Netherlands. Vegetatio 62:449–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Van Dieren JW (1934) Organogene Dünenbildung. Eine geomorphologische Analyse der Dünenlandschaft der West-friesischen insel Terschellingen mit pflanzensoziologischen methoden. Martinus Nijhof, ‘s-GravenhageGoogle Scholar
  159. van Dijk HWJ (1989) Ecological impact of drinking-water production in Dutch coastal dunes. In: van der Meulen F, Jungerius PD, Visser J (eds) Perspectives in coastal dune management. Proceedings of the European Symposium Leiden, September 7–11, 1987. SPB academic Publishing, Den Haag, pp 163–182Google Scholar
  160. van Dorp D, Boot R, van der Maarel E (1985) Vegetation succession on the dunes near Oostvoorne, The Netherlands, since 1934, interpreted from air photographs and vegetation maps. Vegetatio 58:123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. van Til M (1996) Vegetation development in relation to land use and management of the coastal village landscape near zandvoort. Acta Bot Neerl 45:571–587Google Scholar
  162. van Til M, Ketner P, Provoost S (2002) Duinstruwelen in opmars. De Levende Natuur 103:74–77Google Scholar
  163. Veer MAC (1997) Nitrogen availability in relation to vegetation changes resulting from grass encroachment in Dutch dry dunes. J Coast Conserv 3:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wallage-Drees JM (1988) Rabbits in the coastal sand dunes: weighed and counted. Mostert, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  165. Wallis de Vries MF, Raemakers I (2001) Does extensive grazing benefit butterflies in coastal dunes? Restor Ecol 9:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Westhoff V, van Oosten MF (1989) Veranderingen in vegetatie en landschap op de Waddeneilanden. De Levende Natuur 6:210–214Google Scholar
  167. White DJB (1961) Some observations on the vegetation of Blakeney Point, Norfolk, following the disappearance of the rabbits in 1954. J Ecol 49:113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Williamson M (1993) Invaders, weeds and the risk from genetically manipulated organisms. Experientia 49:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Willis AJ (1963) Braunton Burrows: the effects on the vegetation of the addition of mineral nutrients to the dune soils. J Ecol 51:353–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Willis AJ, Yemm EW (1961) Braunton Burrows: mineral nutrient status of the dune soils. J Ecol 49:377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Wilson K (1960) The time factor in the development of dune soils at South Haven Peninsula, Dorset. J Ecol 48:341–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Wilson P (1990) Coastal dune chronology in the north of Ireland. In: Bakker TW, Jungerius PD, Klijn JA (eds) Dunes of the European coasts: geomorphology, hydrology, soils. Catena supplement 18, pp 71–79Google Scholar
  173. Wilson P, Braley SM (1997) Development and age structure of Holocene coastal sand dunes at Horn Head, near Dunfanaghy, Co Donegal, Ireland. Holocene 7:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Wilson P, Orford JD, Knight J, Braley SM, Wintle AG (2001) Late-Holocene (post-4000 years BP) coastal dune development in Northumberland, northeast England. Holocene 11:215–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Wilson P, McGourty J, Bateman MD (2004) Mid- to late-Holocene coastal dune event stratigraphy for the north coast of Northern Ireland. Holocene 14:406–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Zagwijn WH (1971) Vegetational history of the coastal dunes in the western Netherlands. Acta Bot Neerl 20(1):174–182Google Scholar
  177. Ziska LH, Bunce JA (2006) Plant response to rising atmospheric carbin dioxide. In: Morison IL, Morecroft MD (eds) Plant growth and climate change. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 17–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam Provoost
    • 1
  • M. Laurence M. Jones
    • 2
  • Sally E. Edmondson
    • 3
  1. 1.Research Institute for Nature and ForestBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Centre for Ecology and Hydrology BangorBangorUK
  3. 3.Liverpool Hope UniversityLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations