Advertisement

Review of Managerial Science

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 385–410 | Cite as

Coopetition in coworking-spaces: value creation and appropriation tensions in an entrepreneurial space

  • Ricarda B. Bouncken
  • Sven M. Laudien
  • Viktor Fredrich
  • Lars Görmar
Original Paper

Abstract

Coopetition has the potential to improve entrepreneurship and innovation. It will be prevalent in coworking-spaces building a growing field for individual and corporate entrepreneurship. The individuals’ physical closeness in the professional and social space of the coworking-space eases multifaceted transfers of explicit and implicit knowledge, stimulating creation, transfer, overhaul, and implementation of entrepreneurial ideas. While entrepreneurs in these coworking-spaces collaborate on sharing knowledge and resources and on finding creative ideas from which can breed new venture concepts, they simultaneously compete on the appropriation of values. Thus, entrepreneurs in coworking-spaces face coopetitive tensions of creating and appropriating the values. Based  on  interview data and secondary sources, this paper explains four different prototype institutions of coworking-spaces: the corporate coworking-space, the open corporate coworking-space, the consultancy coworking-space, and the independent coworking-space. Study explains different tensions of value creation and appropriation that occur within the coopetition in the different forms of coworking-spaces.

Keywords

Coworking-spaces Coopetition Institutional theory Entrepreneurship Innovation Qualitative-empirical analysis 

JEL Classification

L21 L23 M10 M13 O31 O35 

References

  1. Adner R, Kapoor R (2010) Value creation in innovation ecosystems: how the structure of technological interdependence affects firm performance in new technology generations. Strateg Manag J 31(3):306–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson N, Potočnik K, Zhou J (2014) Innovation and creativity in organizations. J Manag 40(5):1297–1333Google Scholar
  3. Anteby M, Lifshitz H, Tushman M (2014) Using qualitative research for “how” questions. https://www.strategicmanagement.net/pdfs/qualitative-research-in-strategic-management.pdf. Accessed 23 Feb 2017
  4. Bates TW (2011) Community and collaboration: new shared workplaces for evolving work practices. M.C.P., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  5. Bengtsson M, Kock S (2014) Coopetition—Quo vadis? Past accomplishments and future challenges. Ind Mark Manag 43(2):180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bengtsson M, Raza-Ullah T (2016) A systematic review of research on coopetition: toward a multilevel understanding. Ind Mark Manag 57:23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bengtsson M, Raza-Ullah T, Vanyushyn V (2016) The coopetition paradox and tension: the moderating role of coopetition capability. Ind Mark Manag 53:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bessant J, Rush H (1995) Building bridges for innovation: the role of consultants in technology transfer. Res Policy 24(1):97–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bilandzic M, Foth M (2013) Libraries as coworking spaces: understanding user motivations and perceived barriers to social learning. Libr Hi Tech 31(2):254–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilandzic M, Schroeter R, Foth M (2013) Gelatine: making coworking places gel for better collaboration and social learning. In: Proceedings of the 25th Australian computer–human interaction conference: augmentation, application, innovation, collaboration, 2013. ACM, pp 427–436Google Scholar
  11. Birley S (1985) The role of networks in the entrepreneurial process. J Bus Ventur 1(1):107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bizzarri C (2014) The emerging phenomenon of coworking. A redefinition of job market in networking society. In: Müller K, Roth S, Zak M (eds) Social dimension of innovation. Linde, Prague, pp 195–206Google Scholar
  13. Bouncken RB (2017) University coworking-spaces: mechanisms, examples, and suggestions for entrepreneurial universities. Int J Technol Manag (forthcoming) Google Scholar
  14. Bouncken RB, Fredrich V (2012) Coopetition: performance implications and management antecedents. Int J Innov Manag 16(5):1250028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouncken RB, Kraus S (2013) Innovation in knowledge-intensive industries: the double-edged sword of coopetition. J Bus Res 66(10):2060–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouncken RB, Reuschl AJ (2016) Coworking-spaces: how a phenomenon of the sharing economy builds a novel trend for the workplace and for entrepreneurship. Rev Manag Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-016-0215-y
  17. Bouncken RB, Gast J, Kraus S, Bogers M (2015) Coopetition: a systematic review, synthesis, and future research directions. RMS 9(3):577–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouncken RB, Aslam MM, Reuschl AJ (2017a) The dark side of entrepreneurship in coworking-spaces. In: Porcar AT, Soriano DR (eds) Inside the mind of the entrepreneur, vol 9, 1st edn. Springer, Cham, pp 135–147Google Scholar
  19. Bouncken RB, Fredrich V, Ritala P, Kraus S (2017b) Coopetition in new product development alliances: advantages and tensions for incremental and radical innovation. Br J Manag (forthcoming) Google Scholar
  20. Brandenburger AM, Nalebuff BJ (1996) Co-opetition. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Brandenburger AM, Stuart HW (1996) Value-based business strategy. J Econ Manag Strategy 5(1):5–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bruton GD, Ahlstrom D, Li HL (2010) Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: where are we now and where do we need to move in the future? Entrep Theory Pract 34(3):421–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Butcher T (2013) Coworking: locating community at work. Paper presented at the annual Australia New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM) conference, Hobart, Australia, 4–6 Dec 2013Google Scholar
  24. Cabral V, Winden WV (2016) Coworking: an analysis of coworking strategies for interaction and innovation. Int J Knowl Based Dev 7(4):357–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Capdevila I (2013a) Knowledge dynamics in localized communities: coworking spaces as microclusters. SSRNGoogle Scholar
  26. Capdevila I (2013b) Typologies of localized spaces of collaborative innovation. SSRNGoogle Scholar
  27. Capdevila I (2014) Coworking spaces and the localized dynamics of innovation. The case of Barcelona. Int J Innov Manag 19(3):1540004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carr DF (2014) With experience center ‘Sandbox,’ PwC wants to take clients beyond digital brainstorming. http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidcarr/2015/12/14/with-experience-center-sandbox-pwc-wants-to-take-clients-beyond-digital-brainstorming/#7a48d5312c2e. Accessed 23 Feb 2017
  29. Cohen AM (2011) Four scenarios for co-working. Futurist 45(4):8–10Google Scholar
  30. Covin JG, Lumpkin GT (2011) Entrepreneurial orientation theory and research: reflections on a needed construct. Entrep Theory Pract 35(5):855–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dacin MT, Goodstein J, Scott WR (2002) Institutional theory and institutional change: introduction to the special research forum. Acad Manag J 45(1):43–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Devece C, Ribeiro-Soriano ED, Palacios-Marqués D (2017) Coopetition as the new trend in inter-firm alliances: literature review and research patterns. Rev Manag Sci (forthcoming) Google Scholar
  33. DiMaggio PJ, Powell WW (1983) The Iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. Am Sociol Rev 48(2):147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dubois A, Gadde L-E (2002) Systematic combining: an abductive approach to case research. J Bus Res 55(7):553–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dul J, Ceylan C, Jaspers F (2011) Knowledge workers’ creativity and the role of the physical work environment. Hum Resour Manag 50(6):715–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eisenhardt KM (1989) Building theories from case study research. Acad Manag Rev 14(4):532–550Google Scholar
  37. Eisenhardt KM, Graebner ME (2007) Theory building from cases: opportunities and challenges. Acad Manag J 50(1):25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Feagin JR, Orum AM, Sjoberg G (1991) A case for the case study. UNC Press Books, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  39. Fichter K (2009) Innovation communities: the role of networks of promotors in open innovation. R&D Manag 39(4):357–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fuzi A (2015) Co-working spaces for promoting entrepreneurship in sparse regions: the case of South Wales. Reg Stud Reg Sci 2(1):462–469Google Scholar
  41. Gandini A (2015) The rise of coworking spaces: a literature review. Ephemer Theory Politics Organ 15(1):193–205Google Scholar
  42. Garrett LE, Spreitzer GM, Bacevice PA (2017) Co-constructing a sense of community at work: the emergence of community in coworking spaces. Organ Stud 38(6):821–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gioia DA, Corley KG, Hamilton AL (2013) Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: notes on the Gioia methodology. Organ Res Methods 16(1):15–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Glaser BG (1992) Basics of grounded theory analysis: emergence vs. forcing. Sociology Press, Mill ValleyGoogle Scholar
  45. Gnyawali DR, Park BJR (2009) Co-opetition and technological innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises: a multilevel conceptual model. J Small Bus Manag 47(3):308–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Graebner ME, Martin JA, Roundy PT (2012) Qualitative data: cooking without a recipe. Strateg Organ 10(3):276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Greenwood R, Suddaby R, Hinings CR (2002) Theorizing change: the role of professional associations in the transformation of institutionalized fields. Acad Manag J 45(1):58–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gruber M, MacMillan IC, Thompson JD (2013) Escaping the prior knowledge corridor: what shapes the number and variety of market opportunities identified before market entry of technology start-ups? Organ Sci 24(1):280–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Homburg C, Klarmann M, Reimann M, Schilke O (2012) What drives key informant accuracy? J Mark Res 49(4):594–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kelly EL et al (2014) Changing work and work-family conflict: evidence from the work, family, and health network. Am Sociol Rev 79(3):485–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Khanna T, Gulati R, Nohria N (1998) The dynamics of learning alliances: competition, cooperation, and relative scope. Strateg Manag J 19(3):193–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Klein KJ, Kozlowski SWJ (2000) From micro to meso: critical steps in conceptualizing and conducting multilevel research. Organ Res Methods 3(3):211–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kraus S (2011) State-of-the-art current research in international entrepreneurship: a citation analysis. Afr J Bus Manag 5(3):1020Google Scholar
  54. Kraus S, Meier F, Niemand T, Bouncken R, Ritala P (2017) In search for the ideal coopetition partner—an experimental study. Rev Manag Sci (forthcoming) Google Scholar
  55. Kumar N, Stern LW, Anderson JC (1993) Conducting interorganizational research using key informants. Acad Manag J 36(6):1633–1651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lakhani KR, Lifshitz-Assaf H, Tushman M (2013) Open innovation and organizational boundaries: task decomposition, knowledge distribution and the locus of innovation. In: Grandori A (ed) Handbook of economic organization: integrating economic and organizational theory. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 355–382Google Scholar
  57. Lamine W, Mian S, Fayolle A (2014) How do social skills enable nascent entrepreneurs to enact perseverance strategies in the face of challenges? A comparative case study of success and failure. Int J Entrep Behav Res 20(6):517–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lavie D (2007) Alliance portfolios and firm performance: a study of value creation and appropriation in the US software industry. Strateg Manag J 28(12):1187–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lawrence TB, Hardy C, Phillips N (2002) Institutional effects of interorganizational collaboration: the emergence of proto-institutions. Acad Manag J 45(1):281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Le Roy F, Czakon W (2015) Managing coopetition: the missing link between strategy and performance. Ind Mark Manag 53:3–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Leclercq-Vandelannoitte A, Isaac H (2016) The new office: how coworking changes the work concept. J Bus Strategy 37(6):3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lepak DP, Smith KG, Taylor MS (2007) Value creation and value capture: a multilevel perspective. Acad Manag Rev 32(1):180–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Loch CH, Galunic DC, Schneider S (2006) Balancing cooperation and competition in human groups: the role of emotional algorithms and evolution. Manag Decis Econ 27(2–3):217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Meyer JW, Rowan B (1977) Institutionalized organizations: formal structure as myth and ceremony. Am J Sociol 83(2):340–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Miller D, Steier L, Le Breton-Miller I (2003) Lost in time: intergenerational succession, change, and failure in family business. J Bus Ventur 18(4):513–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moilanen J, Vadén T (2013) 3D printing community and emerging practices of peer production. First Monday 18(8)Google Scholar
  67. Moriset B (2014) Building new places of the creative economy. The rise of coworking spaces. Paper presented at the 2nd geography of innovation international conference, Utrecht, January 2014Google Scholar
  68. Nieto MJ, Santamaría L (2007) The importance of diverse collaborative networks for the novelty of product innovation. Technovation 27(6–7):367–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Patton MQ (2002) Two decades of developments in qualitative inquiry a personal, experiential perspective. Qual Soc Work 1(3):261–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Raza-Ullah T, Bengtsson M, Kock S (2014) The coopetition paradox and tension in coopetition at multiple levels. Ind Mark Manag 43(2):189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ribeiro R, Collins H (2007) The bread-making machine: tacit knowledge and two types of action. Organ Stud 28(9):1417–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Richter C, Kraus S, Syrjä P (2015) The shareconomy as a precursor for digital entrepreneurship business models. Int J Entrep Small Bus 25(1):18–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Richter C, Kraus S, Brem A, Durst S, Giselbrecht C (2017) Digital entrepreneurship: innovative business models for the sharing economy. Creat Innov Manag 26(3):300–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ritala P, Sainio L-M (2014) Coopetition for radical innovation: technology, market and business-model perspectives. Technol Anal Strateg Manag 26(2):155–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ritala P, Tidström A (2014) Untangling the value-creation and value-appropriation elements of coopetition strategy: a longitudinal analysis on the firm and relational levels. Scand J Manag 30(4):498–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ritala P, Kraus S, Bouncken R (2016) Introduction to coopetition and innovation: contemporary topics and future research opportunities. Int J Technol Manag 71(1/2):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rus A, Orel M (2015) Coworking: a community of work. Teor Praksa 52(6):1017–1038Google Scholar
  78. Sawyer J (1966) The altruism scale: a measure of co-operative, individualistic, and competitive interpersonal orientation. Am J Sociol 71(4):407–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schopfel J, Roche J, Hubert G (2015) Co-working and innovation: new concepts for academic libraries and learning centres. New Libr World 116(1/2):67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schuermann M (2014) Coworking space: a potent business model for plug ‘n play and indie workers. epubli, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  81. Semrau T, Werner A (2014) How exactly do network relationships pay off? The effects of network size and relationship quality on access to start-up resources. Entrep Theory Pract 38(3):501–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shane S (2000) Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organ Sci 11(4):448–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Simón-Moya V, Revuelto-Taboada L, Ribeiro-Soriano D (2012) Are success and survival factors the same for social and business ventures? Serv Bus 6(2):219–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Soriano DR, Montoro-Sanchez MA (2011) Introduction: the challenges of defining and studying contemporary entrepreneurship. Can J Adm Sci 28(3):297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Spigel B (2015) The relational organization of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Entrep Theory Pract 41(1):49–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Spinuzzi C (2012) Working alone together: coworking as emergent collaborative activity. J Bus Tech Commun 26(4):399–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Spreitzer G, Garrett L, Bacevice P (2015) Should your company embrace coworking? MIT Sloan Manag Rev 57(1):27–29Google Scholar
  88. Stettner U, Lavie D (2014) Ambidexterity under scrutiny: exploration and exploitation via internal organization, alliances, and acquisitions. Strateg Manag J 35(13):1903–1929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tolbert PS, David RJ, Sine WD (2011) Studying choice and change: the intersection of institutional theory and entrepreneurship research. Organ Sci 22(5):1332–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. von Hippel E (1987) Cooperation between rivals: informal know-how trading. Res Policy 16(6):291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weiblen T, Chesbrough HW (2015) Engaging with startups to enhance corporate innovation. Calif Manag Rev 57(2):66–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. West J, Salter A, Vanhaverbeke W, Chesbrough H (2014) Open innovation: the next decade. Res Policy 43(5):805–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yin RK (2013) Case study research: design and methods, 5th edn. Sage publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricarda B. Bouncken
    • 1
  • Sven M. Laudien
    • 1
  • Viktor Fredrich
    • 1
  • Lars Görmar
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Strategic Management and OrganizationUniversity of BayreuthBayreuthGermany

Personalised recommendations