Review of Managerial Science

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 577–601 | Cite as

Coopetition: a systematic review, synthesis, and future research directions

  • Ricarda B. Bouncken
  • Johanna Gast
  • Sascha Kraus
  • Marcel Bogers
Review Paper

Abstract

Coopetition describes an interorganizational relationship that combines “cooperation” and “competition”. During recent years, coopetition has become an important domain for industrial practice which has led to an increasing rate of publications in academic journals. Despite the growing interest, coopetition research is still fragmented, reflected by divergent uses of the coopetition concept, a lack of generalizability, and a limited contextual focus. This article presents a systematic literature review and a synthesis of high-quality contributions in this field with a focus on a general overview of research on coopetition, coopetition as a strategy, and the management of coopetition. By critically evaluating the current body of literature and definitions, and connecting it to other promising domains, we develop a new definition of coopetition and highlight several promising areas for future research, such as the elaboration of theoretical and empirical approaches, the consideration of contextual contingencies, and implications for innovation that involves interorganizational knowledge flow.

Keywords

Coopetition Cooperation and competition Interorganizational relationships Systematic review State-of-the-art 

JEL Classification

D230 L140 M20 

References

  1. Afuah A (2000) How much do your co-opetitors’ capabilities matter in the face of technological change? Strateg Manag J 21(3):397–404Google Scholar
  2. Afuah A (2004) Does a focal firm’s technology entry timing depend on the impact of the technology on co-opetitors? Res Policy 33(8):1231–1246Google Scholar
  3. Aldrich H, Auster E (1986) Even dwarfs started small: liabilities of size and age and their strategic implication. Res Org Behav 8(1):65–198Google Scholar
  4. Bakshi N, Kleindorfer P (2009) Co-opetition and investment for supply-chain resilience. Prod Oper Manag 18(6):583–603Google Scholar
  5. Barney J (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. J Manag 17(1):99–120Google Scholar
  6. Barretta A (2008) The functioning of co-opetition in the health-care sector: an explorative analysis. Scand J Manag 24(3):209–220Google Scholar
  7. Baruch Y, Lin C (2012) All for one, one for all: coopetition and virtual team performance. Technol Forecast Soc Change 79(6):1155–1168Google Scholar
  8. Baum JA (1996) Organizational ecology. In: Clegg S, Hardy C, Nord W (eds) Handbook of organization studies. Sage, London, pp 71–114Google Scholar
  9. Baumard P (2009) An asymmetric perspective on coopetitive strategies. Int J Entrep Small Bus 8(1):6–22Google Scholar
  10. Bengtsson M, Kock S (2000) “Coopetition” in business networks: to cooperate and compete simultaneously. Ind Mark Manag 29(5):411–426Google Scholar
  11. Bengtsson M, Kock S (2014) ‘Coopetition-Quo vadis? past accomplishments and future challenges’. Ind Mark Manag 43(2):180–188Google Scholar
  12. Bonel E, Rocco E (2007) ‘Coopeting to Survive Surviving Coopetition’. Int Stud Manag Org 37(2):70–96Google Scholar
  13. Bouncken R, Fredrich V (2012) Coopetition: performance implications and management antecedents. Int J Innov Manag 16(5):12500281–125002828Google Scholar
  14. Bouncken R, Kraus S (2013) Innovation in knowledge-intensive industries: the double-edged sword of coopetition. J Bus Res 66(10):2060–2070Google Scholar
  15. Bouncken RB, Plüschke BD, Pesch R, Kraus S (2014) Entrepreneurial orientation in vertical alliances: joint product innovation and learning from allies. Rev Manag Sci. doi:10.1007/s11846-014-0150-8 Google Scholar
  16. Bouncken R, Pesch R, Kraus S (2015) SME innovativeness in buyer–seller alliances: effects of entry timing strategies and inter-organizational learning. Rev Manag Sci 9(2):361–384Google Scholar
  17. Brandenburger A, Nalebuff B (1996) Co-opetition. Doubleday Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Brolos A (2009) Innovative coopetition: the strength of strong ties. Int J Entrep Small Bus 8(1):110–134Google Scholar
  19. Brüderl J, Schüssler R (1990) Organizational Mortality: the Liabilities of Newness and Adolescence. Adm Sci Q 35(3):530–547Google Scholar
  20. Carayannis E, Alexander J (1999) The wealth of knowledge: converting intellectual property to intellectual capital in co-opetitive research and technology management settings. Int J Technol Manag 18(3):326–352Google Scholar
  21. Carayannis E, Alexander J (2001) Virtual, wireless mannah: a co-opetitive analysis of the broadband satellite industry. Technovation 21(12):759–766Google Scholar
  22. Carfì D, Schilirò D (2012) A coopetitive model for the green economy. Econ Model 29(4):1215–1219Google Scholar
  23. Cassiman B, Di Guardo M, Valentini G (2009) Organising R&D projects to profit from innovation: insights from co-opetition. Long Range Plan 42(2):216–233Google Scholar
  24. Chen J, Chang C (2012) The co-opetitive strategy of a closed-loop supply chain with remanufacturing. Transp Res Part E: Logist Transp Rev 48(2):387–400Google Scholar
  25. Chesbrough H, Bogers M (2014) Explicating open innovation: clarifying an emerging paradigm for understanding innovation. In: Chesbrough H, Vanhaverbeke W, West J (eds) New frontiers in open innovation. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Chin K, Chan B, Lam P (2008) Identifying and prioritizing critical success factors for coopetition strategy. Ind Manag Data Syst 108(4):437–454Google Scholar
  27. Czakon W (2009) Power asymmetries, flexibility and the propensity to coopete: an empirical investigation of SMEs’ relationships with franchisors. Int J Entrep Small Bus 8(1):44–60Google Scholar
  28. Denison D, Lief C, Ward JL (2004) Culture in family-owned enterprises: recognizing and leveraging unique strengths. Fam Bus Rev 17(1):61–70Google Scholar
  29. Denyer D, Neely A (2004) Introduction to special issue: innovation and productivity performance in the UK. Int J Manag Rev 5(3–4):131–135Google Scholar
  30. Dowling M, Roering W, Carlin B, Wisnieski J (1996) Multifaceted relationships under coopetition description and theory. J Manag Inq 5(2):155–167Google Scholar
  31. Eisenhardt KM (1989) Building theories from case study research. Acad Manag Rev 14(4):532–550Google Scholar
  32. Enberg C (2012) Enabling knowledge integration in coopetitive RandD projects: the management of conflicting logics. Int J Proj Manag 30(7):771–780Google Scholar
  33. Enkel E, Gassmann O, Chesbrough H (2009) Open R&D and open innovation: exploring the phenomenon. R&D Manag 39(4):311–316Google Scholar
  34. Eriksson P (2008) Achieving suitable coopetition in buyer-supplier relationships: the case of AstraZeneca. J Bus Bus Mark 15(4):425–454Google Scholar
  35. Gast J, Filser M, Gundolf K, Kraus S (2015) Coopetition research: towards a better understanding of past trends and future directions. Int J Entrep Small Bus 24(4):492–521Google Scholar
  36. Ghobadi S, D’Ambra J (2012) Coopetitive relationships in cross-functional software development teams: how to model and measure? J Syst Softw 85(5):1096–1104Google Scholar
  37. Gnyawali D, Park B (2009) Co-opetition and technological innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises: a multilevel conceptual model. J Small Bus Manag 47(3):308–330Google Scholar
  38. Gnyawali D, Park B (2011) Co-opetition between giants: collaboration with competitors for technological innovation. Res Policy 40(5):650–663Google Scholar
  39. Gnyawali D, He J, Madhavan R (2006) Impact of co-opetition on firm competitive behavior: an empirical examination. J Manag 32(4):507–530Google Scholar
  40. Grant RM (1991) The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: implications for strategy formulation. Calif Manag Rev 33(3):61–70Google Scholar
  41. Gueguen G (2009) Coopetition and business ecosystems in the information technology sector: the example of intelligent mobile terminals. Int J Entrep Small Bus 8(1):135–153Google Scholar
  42. Gulati R (1998) Alliances and networks. Strateg Manag J 19(4):293–317Google Scholar
  43. Gurnani H, Erkoc M, Luo Y (2007) Impact of product pricing and timing of investment decisions on supply chain co-opetition. Eur J Oper Res 180(1):228–248Google Scholar
  44. Gwynne P (2009) Automakers hope “coopetition” will map route to future sales. Res Technol Manag 52(2):2–8Google Scholar
  45. Habbershon T, Williams M, MacMillan I (2003) A unified systems perspective of family firm performance. J Bus Ventur 18(4):451–465Google Scholar
  46. Harbison JR, Pekar PP, Stasior WF (1998) Smart alliances: a practical guide to repeatable success. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  47. Harms R, Reschke CH, Kraus S, Fink M (2010) Antecedents to innovation and growth: analyzing the impact of entrepreneurial orientation and goal-oriented management. Int J Technol Manag 52(1/2):135–152Google Scholar
  48. Ho H, Ganesan S (2013) ‘Does knowledge base compatibility help or hurt knowledge sharing between suppliers in coopetition? the role of customer participation’. J Mark 77(6):91–107Google Scholar
  49. Hung S-W, Chang C-C (2012) A co-opetition perspective of technology alliance governance modes. Technol Anal Strateg Manag 24(7):679–696Google Scholar
  50. Kale P, Singh H, Perlmutter H (2000) Learning and protection of proprietary assets in strategic alliances: building relational capital. Strateg Manag J 21(3):217–237Google Scholar
  51. Katila R, Rosenberger J, Eisenhardt K (2008) Swimming with sharks: technology ventures, defense mechanisms and corporate relationships. Adm Sci Q 53(2):295–332Google Scholar
  52. Kim S, Kim N, Pae J, Yip L (2013) Cooperate “and” compete: coopetition strategy in retailer-supplier relationships. J Bus Ind Mark 28(4):263–275Google Scholar
  53. Kotzab H, Teller C (2003) Value-adding partnerships and co-opetition models in the grocery industry. Int J Phys Distrib Logist Manag 33(3):268–281Google Scholar
  54. Kovacs G, Spens K (2013) Editorial: Co-opetition in logistics and supply chain management research. Int J Phys Distrib Logist Manag 43(7):504–510Google Scholar
  55. Kraus S, Pohjola M, Koponen A (2012) Innovation in family firms: an empirical analysis linking organizational and managerial innovation to corporate success. Rev Manag Sci 6(3):265–286Google Scholar
  56. Lacoste S (2012) “Vertical coopetition”: the key account perspective. Ind Mark Manag 41(4):649–658Google Scholar
  57. Lai K, Su F, Weng C, Chen C (2007) Co-opetition strategy from the patent analysis perspective: the case of the stent market. INt J Innov Technol Manag 4(02):137–153Google Scholar
  58. Levy M, Loebbecke C, Powell P (2003) SMEs, co-opetition and knowledge sharing: the role of information systems. Eur J Inf Syst 12(1):3–17Google Scholar
  59. Li Y, Liu Y, Liu H (2011) Co-opetition, distributor’s entrepreneurial orientation and manufacturer’s knowledge acquisition: evidence from China. J Oper Manag 29(1):128–142Google Scholar
  60. Liu R (2013) Cooperation, competition and coopetition in innovation communities. Prometheus 31(2):91–105Google Scholar
  61. Luo Y (2004) A coopetition perspective of MNC-host government relations. J Int Manag 10(4):431–451Google Scholar
  62. Luo Y (2005) Toward coopetition within a multinational enterprise: a perspective from foreign subsidiaries. J World Bus 40(1):71–90Google Scholar
  63. Luo Y (2007) A coopetition perspective of global competition. J World Bus 42(2):129–144Google Scholar
  64. Luo X, Slotegraaf R, Pan X (2006) Cross-functional “coopetition”: the simultaneous role of cooperation and competition within firms. J Mark 70(2):67–80Google Scholar
  65. Mantena R, Saha R (2012) Co-opetition between differentiated platforms in two-sided markets. J Manag Inf Syst 29(2):109–140Google Scholar
  66. Mariani M (2007) Coopetition as an emergent strategy: empirical evidence from an Italian consortium of opera houses. Int Stud Manag Org 37(2):97–126Google Scholar
  67. M’Chirgui Z (2005) The economics of the smart card industry: towards coopetitive strategies. Econ Innov New Technol 14(6):455–477Google Scholar
  68. Mention A (2011) Co-operation and co-opetition as open innovation practices in the service sector: which influence on innovation novelty? Technovation 31(1):44–53Google Scholar
  69. Mione A (2009) When entrepreneurship requires coopetition: the need for standards in the creation of a market. Int J Entrep Small Bus 8(1):92–109Google Scholar
  70. Morris M, Koçak A, Özer A (2007) Coopetition as a small business strategy: implications for performance. J Small Bus Strategy 18(1):35–55Google Scholar
  71. Nair A, Narasimhan R, Bendoly E (2011) Coopetitive buyer–supplier relationship: an investigation of bargaining power, relational context, and investment strategies. Decis Sci 42(1):93–127Google Scholar
  72. Okura M (2007) Coopetitive strategies of Japanese insurance firms a game-theory approach. Int Stud Manag Org 37(2):53–69Google Scholar
  73. Ordanini A, Rubera G, DeFillippi R (2008) The many moods of inter-organizational imitation: a critical review. Int J Manag Rev 10(4):375–398Google Scholar
  74. Padula G, Dagnino G (2007) Untangling the rise of coopetition: the intrusion of competition in a cooperative game structure. Int Stud Manag Org 37(2):32–52Google Scholar
  75. Pellegrin-Boucher E, Le Roy F, Gurău C (2013) Coopetitive strategies in the ICT sector: typology and stability. Technol Anal Strateg Manag 25(1):71–89Google Scholar
  76. Peng T, Bourne M (2009) The coexistence of competition and cooperation between networks: implications from two Taiwanese healthcare networks. Br J Manag 20(3):377–400Google Scholar
  77. Peng T, Pike S, Yang J, Roos G (2012) ‘Is cooperation with competitors a good idea? an example in practice’. Br J Manag 23(4):532–560Google Scholar
  78. Podsakoff P, Mackenzie S, Bachrach D, Podsakoff N (2005) The influence of management journals in the 1980s and 1990s. Strateg Manag J 26(5):473–488Google Scholar
  79. Pun H (2013) Channel structure design for complementary products under a co-opetitive environment. Decis Sci 44(4):785–796Google Scholar
  80. Quintana-Garcia C, Benavides-Velasco C (2004) Cooperation, competition, and innovative capability: a panel data of European dedicated biotechnology firms. Technovation 24(12):927–938Google Scholar
  81. Renna P, Argoneto P (2012) Capacity investment decision in co-opetitive network by information sharing. Comput Ind Eng 62(1):359–367Google Scholar
  82. Rijamampianina R, Carmichael T (2005) A framework for effective cross-cultural coopetition between organisations. Prob Perspect Manag 4:92–103Google Scholar
  83. Ritala P (2012) ‘Coopetition strategy: when is it successful? empirical evidence on innovation and market performance’. Br J Manag 23(3):307–324Google Scholar
  84. Ritala P, Hurmelinna-Laukkanen P (2009) ‘What’s in it for me? creating and appropriating value in innovation-related coopetition’. Technovation 29(12):819–828Google Scholar
  85. Ritala P, Hurmelinna-Laukkanen P (2013) Incremental and radical innovation in coopetition: the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability. J Prod Innov Manag 30(1):154–169Google Scholar
  86. Ritala P, Sainio L-M (2014) Coopetition for radical innovation: technology, market and business-model perspectives. Technol Anal Strateg Manag 26(2):155–169Google Scholar
  87. Ritala P, Hurmelinna-Laukkanen P, Blomqvist K (2009) Tug of war in innovation-coopetitive service development. Int J Serv Technol Manag 12(3):255–272Google Scholar
  88. Ritala P, Golnam A, Wegmann A (2014) Coopetition-based business models: the case of Amazon.com. Ind Mark Manag 43(2):236–249Google Scholar
  89. Robert F, Marques P, Le Roy F (2009) Coopetition between SMEs: an empirical study of French professional football. Int J Entrep Small Bus 8(1):23–43Google Scholar
  90. Rodrigues F, Souza V, Leitao J (2009) Strategic coopetition of global brands: a game theory approach to ‘Nike + iPod Sport Kit’ co-branding. Int J Entrep Ventur 3(4):435–455Google Scholar
  91. Roy P, Yami S (2009) Managing strategic innovation through coopetition. Int J Entrep Small Bus 8(1):61–73Google Scholar
  92. Rusko R (2011) Exploring the concept of coopetition: a typology for the strategic moves of the Finnish forest industry. Ind Mark Manag 40(2):311–320Google Scholar
  93. Salvetat D, Géraudel M (2012) The tertius roles in a coopetitive context: the case of the European aeronautical and aerospace engineering sector. Eur Manag J 30(6):603–614Google Scholar
  94. Shih M, Tsai H, Wu C, Lu C (2006) A holistic knowledge sharing framework in high-tech firms: game and co-opetition perspectives. Int J Technol Manag 36(4):354–367Google Scholar
  95. Sirmon D, Hitt M (2003) Managing resources: linking unique resources, management, and wealth creation in family firms. Entrep Theor Pract 27(4):339–358Google Scholar
  96. Song D, Lee E (2012) Coopetitive networks, knowledge acquisition and maritime logistics value. Int J Logist Res Appl 15(1):15–35Google Scholar
  97. Soubeyran A, Weber S (2002) District formation and local social capital: a (tacit) co-opetition approach. J Urban Econ 52(1):65–92Google Scholar
  98. Teece D (1992) Competition, cooperation, and innovation: organizational arrangements for regimes of rapid technological progress. J Econ Behav Org 18(1):1–25Google Scholar
  99. Teece D, Pisano G, Shuen A (1997) Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strateg Manag J 18(7):509–533Google Scholar
  100. Thomason S, Simendinger E, Kiernan D (2013) Several determinants of successful coopetition in small business. J Small Bus Entrep 26(1):15–28Google Scholar
  101. Thorpe R, Holt R, Macpherson A, Pittaway L (2005) Using knowledge within small and medium-sized firms: a systematic review of the evidence. Int J Manag Rev 7(4):257–281Google Scholar
  102. Tranfield D, Denyer D, Smart P (2003) Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. Br J Manag 14(3):207–222Google Scholar
  103. Tsai W (2002) Social structure of “coopetition” within a multiunit organization: coordination, competition, and intraorganizational knowledge sharing. Org Sci 13(2):179–190Google Scholar
  104. Van Buuren A, Buijs J-M, Teisman G (2010) Program management and the creative art of coopetition: dealing with potential tensions and synergies between spatial development projects. Int J Proj Manag 28(7):672–682Google Scholar
  105. Von Friedrichs Grängsjö Y (2003) Destination networking: co-opetition in peripheral surroundings. Int J Phys Distrib Logist Manag 33(5):427–448Google Scholar
  106. Walley K (2007) Coopetition: an introduction to the subject and an agenda for research. Int Stud Manag Org 37(2):11–31Google Scholar
  107. Wang Y, Krakover S (2008) Destination marketing: competition, cooperation or coopetition? Int J Contemp Hosp Manag 20(2):126–141Google Scholar
  108. West J, Bogers M (2014) Leveraging external sources of innovation: A review of research on open innovation. J Prod Innov Manag 31(4):814–831Google Scholar
  109. Wilhelm M (2011) Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations: linking dyadic and network levels of analysis. J Oper Manag 29(7):663–676Google Scholar
  110. Wilhelm M, Kohlbacher F (2011) Co-opetition and knowledge co-creation in Japanese supplier-networks: the case of Toyota. Asian Bus Manag 10(1):66–86Google Scholar
  111. Xi JM, Kraus S, Kellermanns F, Filser M (2013) Mapping the field of family business research: past trends and future directions. Int Entrep Manag J. doi:10.1007/s11365-013-0286-z Google Scholar
  112. Yu L (2008) Co-opetition Without Borders. MIT Sloan Manag Rev 49(2):8–9Google Scholar
  113. Zhang J, Frazier G (2011) Strategic alliance via co-opetition: supply chain partnership with a competitor. Decis Support Syst 51(4):853–863Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricarda B. Bouncken
    • 1
  • Johanna Gast
    • 2
  • Sascha Kraus
    • 3
  • Marcel Bogers
    • 4
  1. 1.Chair of Strategic Management and OrganizationUniversity of BayreuthBayreuthGermany
  2. 2.Montpellier Business School – MRMMontpellierFrance
  3. 3.Institute for EntrepreneurshipUniversity of LiechtensteinVaduzLiechtenstein
  4. 4.Mads Clausen Institute, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Southern DenmarkSønderborgDenmark

Personalised recommendations