Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -)

, Volume 186, Issue 1, pp 1–16 | Cite as

Towards a building typology and terminology for Irish hospitals

  • T. Grey
  • S. Kennelly
  • P. de Freine
  • S. Mahon
  • V. Mannion
  • D. O’Neill
Review

Abstract

Background

The physical form of the hospital environment shapes the care setting and influences the relationship of the hospital to the community. Due to ongoing demographic change, evolving public health needs, and advancing medical practice, typical hospitals are frequently redeveloped, retrofitted, or expanded. It is argued that multi-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder approaches are required to ensure that hospital design matches these increasingly complex needs. To facilitate such a conversation across different disciplines, experts, and community stakeholders, it is helpful to establish a hospital typology and associated terminology as part of any collaborative process.

Aims

Examine the literature around hospital design, and review the layout and overall form of a range of typical Irish acute public hospitals, to outline an associated building typology, and to establish the terminology associated with the planning and design of these hospitals in Ireland.

Methods

Searches in ‘Academic Search Complete’, ‘Compendex’, ‘Google’, ‘Google Scholar’, ‘JSTOR’, ‘PADDI’, ‘Science Direct’, ‘Scopus’, ‘Web of Science’, and Trinity College Dublin Library. The search terms included: ‘hospital design history’; ‘hospital typology’; ‘hospital design terminology’; and ‘hospital design Ireland’.

Results

Typical hospitals are composed of different layouts due to development over time; however, various discrete building typologies can still be determined within many hospitals. This paper presents a typology illustrating distinct layout, circulation, and physical form characteristics, along with a hospital planning and design terminology of key terms and definitions.

Conclusion

This typology and terminology define the main components of Irish hospital building design to create a shared understanding around design, and support stakeholder engagement, as part of any collaborative design process.

Keywords

Acute-care hospitals Hospital architecture Hospital planning Stakeholder engagement Collaborative design Universal design Dementia-friendly hospital design 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Meath Foundation for funding a research project looking at the design of dementia-friendly hospitals. This paper has emerged as a supporting document within this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Funding

This study was funded by the Meath Foundation (no grant number applicable).

Not applicable.

T. Grey declares that he has no conflict of interest. S. Kennelly declares that he has no conflict of interest. P. de Freine declares that he has no conflict of interest. S. Mahon declares that he has no conflict of interest. V. Mannion declares that she has no conflict of interest. D. O’Neill declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. 1.
    HSE National Projects Office (2016) Location of HSE’s four regions and 50 acute care hospitals. http://www.hse.ie/eng/about/map_of_hospital_networks_and_hse_areas.pdf. Accessed 01 June 2016
  2. 2.
    Hirshon JM et al (2013) Health systems and services: the role of acute care. Bull World Health Org 91:386–388CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    O’Dwyer F (1997) Irish hospital architecture. Department of Health and Children, DublinGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prasad S (2012) Typology quarterly hospitals. Archit Rev 231(1383):67–79Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beauchemin KM, Hays P (1996) Sunny hospital rooms expedite recovery from severe and refractory depressions. J Affect Disord 40(1):49–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ulrich R, Zimring C, Quan X, Joseph A, Choudhary R (2004) The role of the physical environment in the hospital of the 21st century. The Center for Health Design, California, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ulrich RS et al (2008) A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design. HERD: Health Environ Res Des J 1(3):61–125Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Monk T (2004) Hospital builders. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, New York, USA Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ulrich R (1984) View through a window may influence recovery. Science 224(4647):224–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ulrich RS (2001) Effects of healthcare environmental design on medical outcomes. In: Design and health: Proceedings of the second international conference on health and design. Svensk Byggtjanst, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ulrich RS, Zimring C, Zhu X, Dubose J, Seo H-B, Choi Y-S, Quan X, Joseph A (2008) A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design. HERD: Health Environ Research Design J 1:61–125Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chiou S-T, Chen L-K (2009) Towards age-friendly hospitals and health services. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 49(Supplement 2):S3–S6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Douglas CH, Douglas MR (2004) Patient-friendly hospital environments: exploring the patients’ perspective. Health Expect 7(1):61–73CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    CEUD (2016) What is universal design. http://universaldesign.ie/What-is-Universal-Design/. Accessed 12 April 16
  15. 15.
    McGinnis JM, Saunders RS, Olsen L (2011) Patients charting the course: citizen engagement in the learning health system: work-shop summary. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., USAGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Popper B et al (1987) A case study of the impact of a parent advisory committee on hospital design and policy, Boston Children’s Hospital. Child Environ Quart 4(3):12–17Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Orpwood R (2009) Invloving people with dementia in the design process—examples of iterative design. In: Topo ÖBP (ed) Dementia, design and technology time to get involved. Assistive technology research series, vol 24. IOS Press, Amsterdam, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Steinfeld E, Maisel J (2012) Universal design: creating inclusive environments. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    HIQA (2012) General guidance on the National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare. Health Information and Quality Authority. Dublin, Ireland. https://www.hiqa.ie/publications/general-guidance-national-standards-safer-better-healthcare. Accessed 10 June 2016
  20. 20.
    HIQA (2012) National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare. Health Information and Quality Authority. Dublin, Ireland. https://www.hiqa.ie/standards/health/saferbetter-healthcare. Accessed 10 June 2016
  21. 21.
    Fernandez Diaz-Cabal N (2015) Hospitals. In: Colditz GA (ed) SAGE Encyclopedia of Cancer and Society, SAGE Publications. London, UKGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Verderber S, Fine DJ (2000) Healthcare architecture in an era of radical transformation. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Watson S (2006) The origins of the English hospital. Trans R Hist Soc 16:75–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weston R, Aalto A (1997) Alvar Aalto. Phaidon Press, London, UK, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aalto A (1940) The humanizing of architecture. In: Schildt G (ed) Alvar Aalto in his own words. Rizzoli, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Monk T (2004) Hospital builders. Wiley-Academy, Chichester, p 224Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nuffield Provincial Hospitals, T. and B. (1955) University of studies in the functions and design of hospitals. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Francis S, Glanville R, Noble A, Scher P (1999) 50 years of ideas in health care buildings. Nuffield Trust, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cook M (2007) The design quality manual: improving building performance. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Neufert E, Neufert P, Kister J (2012) Neufert architects’ data. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hussain MK, Babalghith AO (2014) Quality of hospital design in healthcare industry: history, benefits and future prospect. Impact: Int J Res Appl Nat Soc Sci 2(5):61–68Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ulrich RS (2006) Essay: evidence-based health-care architecture. Lancet 368:S38–S39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mitchell R (2012) Spaces that heal. Fast Co 171:46–50Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Princeton HealthCare System (2016) Patient rooms at UMCPP. https://www.princetonhcs.org. Accessed 28 July 2016
  35. 35.
    Verderber S (2010) Innovations in hospital architecture. Routledge, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Verderber S, Todd LG (2012) Reconsidering the semiprivate inpatient room in US hospitals. HERD: Health Environ Res Des J 5(2):7–23Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Singh I, Okeke J, Edwards C (2015) Outcome of in-patient falls in hospitals with 100% single rooms and multi-bedded wards. Age Ageing 44(6):1032–1035CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ugboma I et al (2011) Effect of bedroom size on falls in hospital: does one size fit all? J Am Geriatr Soc 59(6):1153–1154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Malcolm HA (2005) Does privacy matter? Former patients discuss their perceptions of privacy in shared hospital rooms. Nurs Ethics 12(2):156–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Latimer HSAIAA et al (2008) Analysis of hospital facility growth: are we super-sizing healthcare?/commentary: right-size; don’t super-size/commentary: part of the cure or part of the problem? HERD: Health Environ Res Des J 1(4):70–91Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    van de Glind I, de Roode S, Goossensen A (2007) Do patients in hospitals benefit from single rooms? A literature review. Health Policy 84(2–3):153–161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Casey N (1984) Hospital architecture in Dublin. In: O’Brien E, Crookshank A (eds) A portrait of Irish medicine an illustrated history of medicine in Ireland. Published for the Bicentenary of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland by Ward River Press: Swords, Co. Dublin, DublinGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Craig MJ (1997) The architecture of Ireland: from the earliest times to 1880. [Rev. ed.]. Lambay Books, Portrane, Co. DublinGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    O’Dwyer F (1997) Irish hospital architecture. Department of Health and Children, Dublin, p 119Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Government of Ireland (1945) Tuberculosis (establishment of sanatoria) act. http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1945/act/4/enacted/en/html. Accessed 01 June 2016
  46. 46.
    Daly ME (2012) The curse of the Irish hospitals Sweepstake: a hospital system, not a health system’. Work Papers Hist Policy 2:1–15Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    The Consultative Council on General Hospital Services (1968) Outline of the future hospital system. Government of Ireland Dublin, IrelandGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    The Mater Hospital (2015) Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. http://www.mater.ie/. Accessed 18 Feb 2016
  49. 49.
    Evashwick C, Evashwick W (1988) The fine art of strategic planning. Provider (Washington, DC) 14(4):4Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Department of Health (UK) (2014) Health Building Note 00-01 general design guidance for healthcare buildings. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/316247/HBN_00-01-2.pdf. Accessed 10 Mar 2016
  51. 51.
    O’Connell Mahon Architects (2016) Personal communication to the authors regarding new developments in hospital design in Ireland. http://www.oconnellmahon.ie/. Accessed 3 July 2016
  52. 52.
    Board N.P.H.D. (2016) Delivering Ireland’s New Children’s Hospital. http://www.newchildrenshospital.ie/. Accessed 28 July 2016
  53. 53.
    Wickson F, Carew AL, Russell AW (2006) Transdisciplinary research: characteristics, quandaries and quality. Futures 38(9):1046–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rosenfield PL (1992) Special issue building research capacity for health social sciences in developing countries the potential of transdisciplinary research for sustaining and extending linkages between the health and social sciences. Soc Sci Med 35(11):1343–1357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Grey
    • 1
  • S. Kennelly
    • 2
  • P. de Freine
    • 3
  • S. Mahon
    • 4
  • V. Mannion
    • 4
  • D. O’Neill
    • 2
  1. 1.TrinityHaus Research CentreTrinity College DublinDublinIreland
  2. 2.The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Dublin, Incorporating the National Children’s HospitalDublinIreland
  3. 3.Health Services ExecutiveDublinIreland
  4. 4.O’Connell Mahon ArchitectsDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations