Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -)

, Volume 184, Issue 1, pp 207–212 | Cite as

Food and beverage advertising during children’s television programming

  • P. Scully
  • A. Macken
  • D. Leddin
  • W. Cullen
  • C. Dunne
  • C. O. Gorman
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns.

Aims

Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children’s programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television.

Methods

Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome.

Results

322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322).

Conclusions

These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children’s programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children’s programming.

Keywords

Television Food Beverage Obesity Advertising 

References

  1. 1.
    Saunders T (2011) Potential contributors to the Canadian pediatric obesity epidemic. ISRN Pediatr 2011:917684CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang Y, Lobstein T (2006) Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes 1(1):11–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    James W, Jackson-Leach R, Ni Mhurchu C, Kalamara E, Shayeghi M, Rigby NJ et al (2004) Comparative quantification of health risks. Chapter 8: overweight and obesity (high body mass index). In: World Health Organisation. Accessed 5 Sep 2013Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Peeters A, Barendregt JJ, Willekens F, Mackenbach JP, Al Mamun A, Bonneux L (2003) Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Ann Intern Med 138(1):24–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gortmaker SL, Must A, Sobol AM, Peterson K, Colditz GA, Dietz WH (1996) Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–1990. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 150(4):356–362CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaiser Family Foundation (2004) The role of media in childhood obesity. Accessed 5 Sep 2013Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Strasburger VC (2006) Children, adolescents, and advertising. Pediatrics 118(6):2563–2569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Powell LM, Szczypka G, Chaloupka FJ, Braunschweig CL (2007) Nutritional content of television food advertisements seen by children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics 120(3):576–583CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harrison K, Marske AL (2005) Nutritional content of foods advertised during the television programs children watch most. Am J Public Health 95(9):1568–1574CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Henderson VR, Kelly B (2005) Food advertising in the age of obesity: content analysis of food advertising on general market and African American television. J Nutr Education Behav 37(4):191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lewis MK, Hill AJ (1998) Food advertising on British children’s television: a content analysis and experimental study with 9-year olds. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22(3):206–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rodd H, Patel V (2005) Content analysis of children’s television advertising in relation to dental health. Br Dent J 199:710–712CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sixsmith R, Furnham A (2010) A content analysis of British food advertisements aimed at children and adults. Health Promotion Int 25(1):24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adams J, Tyrrell R, White M (2011) Do television food advertisements portray advertised foods in a ‘healthy’ food context? Br J Nutr 105(6):810–815CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Story M, French S (2004) Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 1(1):3CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Halford JC, Gillespie J, Brown V, Pontin EE, Dovey TM (2004) Effect of television advertisements for foods on food consumption in children. Appetite 42(2):221–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Halford JC, Boyland EJ, Hughes GM, Stacey L, McKean S, Dovey TM (2008) Beyond-brand effect of television food advertisements on food choice in children: the effects of weight status. Public Health Nutr 11(9):897–904CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lipsky LM, Iannotti RJ (2012) Associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in the 2009 health behaviour in school-aged children study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 166(5):465–472CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Taveras EM, Sandora TJ, Shih MC, Ross-Degnan D, Goldmann DA, Gillman MW (2006) The association of television and video viewing with fast food intake by preschool-age children. Obes Silver Spring Md 14(11):2034–2041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Taras HL, Gage M (1995) Advertised foods on children’s television. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 149(6):649–652CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McGinnis MJ, Gootman JA, Kraak VI (2006) Food marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Broadcasting Authority of Ireland (2010) Strategy Statement 2011–2013. http://www.bai.ie/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/BAI_Strategy_2011-13_v2ENG.pdf. Accessed 5 Sep 2013
  23. 23.
    British Broadcasting Corporation (2006) BROADCASTING: An Agreement Between Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport and the British Broadcasting Corporation. http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/bbctrust/assets/files/pdf/about/how_we_govern/agreement.pdf. Accessed 5 Sep 2013
  24. 24.
    Radio Teilifis Eireann (2010) Public Service Statement. http://www.rte.ie/documents/about/rte-pss-2010v1.pdf. Accessed 28 Dec 2013
  25. 25.
    Radio Teilifis Eireann (2012) Strategy 2012–2017. http://static.rasset.ie/documents/about/rte-strategic-plan-full-redacted-version.pdf. Accessed 28 Dec 2013
  26. 26.
    Outley CW, Taddese A (2006) A content analysis of health and physical activity messages marketed to African American children during after-school television programming. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 160(4):432–435CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boynton-Jarrett R, Thomas TN, Peterson KE, Wiecha J, Sobol AM, Gortmaker SL (2003) Impact of television viewing patterns on fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents. Pediatrics 112(6 Pt 1):1321–1326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Strachan J, Pavie-Latour V (2008) Food for thought: shouldn’t we actually target food advertising more towards kids and not less? Int J Mark Res 50:13–27Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Veerman JL, Van Beeck EF, Barendregt JJ, Mackenbach JP (2009) By how much would limiting TV food advertising reduce childhood obesity? Eur J Pub Health 19(4):365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Auty S, Lewis C (2004) Exploring children’s choice: the reminder effect of product placement. Psychol Mark 21(9):697–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Russell CA (2002) Investigating the effectiveness of product placement in television shows: the role of modality and plot connection congruence on brand memory and attitude. J Consumer Res 29:306–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dixon H, Scully M, Niven P, Kelly B, Chapman K, Donovan R, et al (2013) Effects of nutrient content claims, sports celebrity endorsements and premium offers on pre-adolescent children’s food preferences: experimental research. Pediatr Obes. doi:10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00169.x
  33. 33.
    Dixon H, Scully M, Wakefield M, Kelly B, Chapman K, Donovan R (2011) Parent’s responses to nutrient claims and sports celebrity endorsements on energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods: an experimental study. Public Health Nutr 14(6):1071–1079CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sargent JD, Beach ML, Adachi-Mejia AM, Gibson JJ, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Carusi CP, Swain SD, Heatherton TF, Dalton MA (2005) Exposure to movie smoking: its relation to smoking initiation among US adolescents. Pediatrics 116(5):1183–1191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dalton MA, Sargent JD, Beach ML, Titus-Ernstoff L, Gibson JJ, Ahrens MB, Tickle JJ, Heatherton TF (2003) Effect of viewing smoking in movies on adolescent smoking initiation: a cohort study. Lancet 362(9380):281–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Broadcasting Authority of Ireland (2012) BAI Signals new rules to govern advertising of food and drink in children’s advertising. http://www.bai.ie/?p=2792. Accessed 5 Sep 2013

Copyright information

© Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Scully
    • 1
  • A. Macken
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • D. Leddin
    • 3
    • 4
  • W. Cullen
    • 4
  • C. Dunne
    • 4
  • C. O. Gorman
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.The Children’s Ark, University Hospital LimerickLimerickIreland
  2. 2.National Children’s Research CentreDublinIreland
  3. 3.Dalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  4. 4.Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (4i)Graduate Entry Medical SchoolLimerickIreland

Personalised recommendations