Advertisement

Irish Journal of Medical Science

, Volume 176, Issue 3, pp 193–198 | Cite as

The relationship between nutrient intake and cognitive performance in people at risk of dementia

  • R. Salerno-KennedyEmail author
  • K. D. Cashman
Original Article

Abstract

Background

There is evidence of a link between nutrient intake and cognitive impairment and decline in old age. There has been no study of nutrient intake in Irish subjects at risk of dementia.

Aim

To investigate the possible link between nutrient intake and cognitive performance in a group of Irish adults at risk of dementia, and to compare the nutrient intake in these adults stratified by the absence or presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele.

Method

Forty-four subjects, who were first-degree blood relatives of people with Alzheimer’s disease, were recruited. Cognitive performance and nutritional intake were assessed and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype determined.

Results

The intakes of cholesterol (P < 0.037) and Na (P < 0.037) were significantly higher in subjects with altered cognitive performance. There was no significant difference in nutrient intakes between APOE ε-4 allele positive and APOE ε-4 allele negative subjects.

Conclusion

The findings of this work suggest that dietary cholesterol and sodium intake may be linked to cognitive impairment.

Keywords

APOE genotype Cognitive function Disorders Irish population MMSE Nutrients Nutrition-related 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Prof. John O’Halloran, UCC, for his help with the statistical analysis. This work was supported by funding made available under the National Development Plan 2000–2006 with assistance from the European Regional Development Fund.

References

  1. 1.
    Gonzales-Gross M, Marcos A, Pietrzik K (2001) Nutrition and cognitive impairment in the elderly. Br J Nutr 86:313–320Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Selhub J, Bagley LC, Miller J, Rosenberg IH (2000) B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 71:614S–620SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Joosten E (2001) Homocysteine, vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Clin Chem Lab Med 39:717–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Selhub J, Jacques PF, Wilson JPF, et al (1993) Vitamin status and intake as primary determinants of homocysteinemia in an elderly population. JAMA 270:2693–2698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Engelhart MJ, Geerlings MI, Ruitenberg A, et al (2002) Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. JAMA 287:3230–3261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL (2002) Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of incident Alzheimer Disease in a biracial community study. JAMA 287:3230–3237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kalmijn S, Launer LJ, Ott A, et al (1997) Dietary fat intake and the risk of incident dementia in the Rotterdam study. Ann Neurol 42:776–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kalmijn S (2000) Fatty acid intake and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline: a review of clinical and epidemiological studies. J Nutr Health Aging 4:202–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al (2004) Dietary fat intake and 6-year cognitive change in an older biracial community population. Neurology 62(9):1573–1579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang X, Dong F, Ren J, et al (2005) High dietary fat induces NADPH oxidase-associated oxidative stress and inflammation in rat cerebral cortex. Exp Neurol 191:318–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sparks DL (1997) Coronary Artery disease, hypertension, ApoE, and cholesterol: a link to Alzheimer’s disease? Ann N Y Acad Sci 826:128–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sparks DL, Scheff SW, Hunsaker JC III, et al (1994) Induction of Alzheimer-like beta-amyloid immunoreactivity in the brains of rabbits with dietary cholesterol. Exp Neurol 126:88–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shie FS, Jin LW, Cook DG, et al (2002) Diet-induced hypercholesterolemia enhances brain A beta accumulation in transgenic mice. NeuroReport 13:455S–459SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kasim-Karakas E, Almario RU, Mueller WM, et al (2000) Changes in plasma lipoproteins during low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets: effects of energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 71 1439–1447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jansen J, Lopez-Miranda P, Castro, et al (2000) Low-fat and high-monounsaturated fatty acid diets decrease plasma cholesterol ester transfer protein concentrations in young, healthy, normolipemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 72:36–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sheehan D, Bennett T, Cashman K (2000) Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms and serum cholesterol in healthy Irish adults: a proposed genetic marker for coronary artery disease risk. Ir J Med Sci 169(1):50–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Corder EH, Saunders AM, Strittmatter, et al (1993) Gene dose of apoliprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in late onset families. Science 261:921–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marshall JA, Kamboh MI, Bessesen DH, et al (1996) Association between dietary factors and serum lipids by apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Am J Clin Nutr 63:87–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    deCastro JM (2004) Genes, the environment and the control of food intake. Br J Nutr 92(suppl 1):S59–S62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Uusitupa MI, Ruuskanen E, Makinen E, et al (1992) A controlled study on the effect of beta-glucan-rich oat bran on serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects: relation to apolipoprotein E phenotype. J Am Coll Nutr 11(6):651–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Corella D, Tucker K, Lahoz C, et al (2001) Alcohol drinking determines the effect of the APOE locus on LDL-cholesterol concentrations in men: the Framingham offspring study. Am J Clin Nutr 73(4):736–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lopez-Miranda J, Ordovas JM, Mata P, et al (1994) Effect of apolipoprotein E phenotype on diet-induced lowering of plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Lipid Res 35(11):1965–1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975) Mini-Mental State. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12:189–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, et al (1992) Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol 135:1114–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holland B, Welch AA, Unwin ID, et al (1995) McCance and Widdowson’s the composition of foods Foods (5th edn). Royal society of chemistry and ministry of agriculture, fisheries and food. HM Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Houx PJ, Shepherd J, Blauw GJ, et al (2002) Testing cognitive function in elderly populations: the PROSPER study. PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 73(4):385–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    van Duijn CM, Hofman A (1992) Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease: the EURODEM collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. Neuroepidemiology 11:106–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Greendale GA, Barrett-Connor E, Edelstein S, et al (1994) Dietary sodium and bone mineral density: results of a 16-year follow-up study. J Am Geriatr Soc 42(10):1050–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hagfors L, Westerterp K, Skoldstam L, et al (2005) Validity of reported energy expenditure and reported intake of energy, protein, sodium and potassium in rheumatoid arthritis patients in a dietary intervention study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59(2):238–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Law M (2000) Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. J Cardiovasc Risk 7:5–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu G, Qiao Q, Tuomilehto J (2002) Nonhypertensive cardiac effects of high salt diet. Curr Hypertens Rep 4:13–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Petot GJ, Friedland RP (2004) Lipids, diet and Alzheimer disease: an extended summary. J Neurol Sci 226:31–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Petot GJ (2003) Interactions of apolipoprotein E genotype and dietary fat intake of healthy older persons during mid-adult life. Metabolism 52(3):279–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and Nutritional SciencesUniversity College CorkCorkIreland
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity College CorkCorkIreland

Personalised recommendations