Small-scale Forestry

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 41–56 | Cite as

Socioeconomic Conditions Affecting Smallholder Timber Management in Gunungkidul District, Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia

  • Takahiro Fujiwara
  • San Afri Awang
  • Wahyu Tri Widayanti
  • Ratih Madya Septiana
  • Kimihiko Hyakumura
  • Noriko Sato
Research Paper


Indonesia is one of the largest teak timber producers in the world. The Javanese State Forest Company has been a major producer of teak timber in Indonesia; however, log production decreased drastically due to severe illegal logging after the collapse of Suharto regime. In contrast, small-scale private forests (PFs) owned by local farmers have expanded and are expected to be a new source of teak timber. Long rotation is a critical factor in producing a larger diameter log with a higher heartwood proportion. However, harvest timing in PFs is traditionally decided based on individual farmers’ needs even if trees are still young and of small diameter. Therefore, traditional harvesting is an obstacle to producing high-quality teak timber. The objectives of this study are to (1) identify the household economies and PF management styles of local farmers, (2) characterize the local farmers who conduct traditional harvesting, and (3) suggest key considerations for PF policymaking. Key informant interviews and semi-structured interviews with local farmers were conducted in three villages in Gunungkidul district, Yogyakarta Special Region. The study identified the household economies, the ownership and management structures, and the traditional harvesting in PFs in the three villages, and reaffirmed diversity and complexity of PFs. It appears that PF management is influenced by topographic and socioeconomic conditions and differs widely across villages. Therefore, it is important to consider the diversity and complexity of PFs in PF policymaking.


Teak New timber source Timber quality Short rotation Harvest strategy Diverse management structure 



This research was conducted with the permission (Nos. 0253/FRP/SM/X/2009 and 42/SIP/FRP/SM/IX/2010) of the Ministry of Research and Technology (RISTEK), Republic of Indonesia. The authors received research grants from the Kyushu University Interdisciplinary Programs in Education and Projects in Research Development, the Fuji Xerox Setsutaro Kobayashi Memorial Fund, the Institutional Program for Young Researcher Overseas Visit of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H05122. We are grateful for the support received from the people of Gunungkidul during the fieldwork. The valuable comments and suggestions from editors and anonymous referees are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Steve Harrison, John Herbohn 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takahiro Fujiwara
    • 1
  • San Afri Awang
    • 2
  • Wahyu Tri Widayanti
    • 2
  • Ratih Madya Septiana
    • 2
  • Kimihiko Hyakumura
    • 3
  • Noriko Sato
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of AgricultureKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of ForestryUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Institute of Tropical AgricultureKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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