Small-scale Forestry

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 367–376 | Cite as

Effects of Wheeled Cable Skidding on Residual Trees in Selective Logging in Caspian Forests

  • Farshad Keivan BehjouEmail author
Research Paper


There are increasing demands on silvicultural practices to reduce the adverse impacts of harvesting. Damage to residual trees caused by ground-based skidding was assessed in stands with low [3.4 stems per hectare (sph), 14.36 m3/ha], medium (5.2 sph, 21.61 m3/ha), and high (7.1 sph, 25.95 m3/ha) harvest intensities. Skidding was conducted using a cable skidder. After the skidding operation, a field survey was conducted to collect data on all residual trees (species, dbh, height) and on tree wounds (size class, location, intensity of damage). It was hypothesized that increased harvest intensity leads to increased injury rates. The treatment with the highest harvest intensity was found to cause the highest percentage of damage and the largest stem wounds. The most common types of damage were stem wounds to the cambium layer and bark scrapes. In all three harvest intensity treatments the probability of individual tree damage decreased as skid-trail cross slope decreased and distance to skid-trail edge increased. It is concluded that harvesting intensity should be limited to 5 trees/ha during each harvesting operation to reduce extent of tree damage and thus future financial loss.


Residual trees Damage probability Ground-based skidding Harvest intensity Stem wounds 


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Copyright information

© Steve Harrison, John Herbohn 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Natural ResourcesUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran

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