, Volume 71, Issue 12, pp 4799–4805 | Cite as

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Pure Copper Wire Produced by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion

  • Xiao LiEmail author
  • Nicole Overman
  • Timothy Roosendaal
  • Matthew Olszta
  • Chen Zhou
  • Hongliang Wang
  • Tom Perry
  • James Schroth
  • Glenn Grant
Microstructure Evolution During Deformation Processing


The shear assisted processing and extrusion (ShAPE) process can consolidate powdered materials and simultaneously extrude wire or tube with improved properties. We successfully produced copper wire extrusions from powder and solid materials for the first time. The extrusion pressure in the ShAPE process is at least ten times less than that required for conventional extrusion. We used optical microscopy to inspect and validate the integrity of extrudates, revealing that the microstructure was refined and dynamically recrystallized to equiaxial grains. Compared with annealed copper wire, ShAPE-processed wire showed 80% higher yield strength, 15% higher ultimate tensile strength, and 20% higher ductility. These results were correlated with refined grain size and substructuring observed via electron backscatter diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy.



The authors thank the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Transitions and Vehicles Technologies Office (DOE/OTT and VTO) for supporting this Technology Commercialization Fund (TCF) work. The authors are grateful for the dedication of Jens Darsell and Md. Reza-E-Rabby in assisting with extrusions on the machine, and Anthony Guzman for excellent preparation for metallographic analysis. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC06-76LO1830.


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA
  2. 2.General Motors R&D CenterWarrenUSA

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