, Volume 71, Issue 9, pp 3266–3276 | Cite as

Constitutive Topics in Physical Chemistry of High-Temperature Nonferrous Metallurgy: A Review—Part 2. Reduction and Refining

  • M. Shamsuddin
  • H. Y. SohnEmail author
Technical Article


In this Part 2 of the review, we demonstrate the roles of phase rule, free energy and activity in the reduction and refining of different nonferrous metals categorized as common, reactive, rare and refractory. Based on the discussions in the following sections, the reader will appreciate the contributions of phase rule, activity and free energy in the selection of particular steps in the extraction of different types of metals. It also demonstrates how difficult reactions like the removal of nickel from blister copper can be made feasible by generating conditions according to the van’t Hoff isotherm.



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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of TechnologyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgical EngineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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