, Volume 71, Issue 4, pp 1543–1553 | Cite as

Investigation of the Lithium-Containing Aluminum Copper Alloy (AA2099) for the Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process [L-PBF]: Effects of Process Parameters on Cracks, Porosity, and Microhardness

  • Iris RaffeisEmail author
  • Frank Adjei-Kyeremeh
  • Uwe Vroomen
  • Piyada Suwanpinij
  • Simon Ewald
  • Andreas Bührig-Polazcek
Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Materials


In order to widen the alloy spectrum for the laser powder bed fusion process, apart from the popular Al-Si-based alloys, AlSi10Mg and AlSi12, the precipitation-hardenable AA2099 wrought alloy has been considered in this work. The effect of varied laser power, scanning speed, a preheated base plate (in situ heat treatment) and post-heat treatments on porosity, cracks and microhardness was observed. The results indicate a successfully printed crack-free part with very minimal porosity at 90 W laser power and 550 mm/s scanning speed with microhardness of 72 HV0,1 at a 520°C preheat treatment temperature. The influence of added titanium aluminide powder in crack removal and grain refinement is also reported in this work.



The authors thank ACCESS e.V. for their support in the analytics. The authors would like to thank the German Research Foundation DFG for the kind support within the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iris Raffeis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Frank Adjei-Kyeremeh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Uwe Vroomen
    • 1
  • Piyada Suwanpinij
    • 2
  • Simon Ewald
    • 3
  • Andreas Bührig-Polazcek
    • 1
  1. 1.Foundry InstituteRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.The Sirindhorn International Thai-German Graduate School of Engineering (TGGS-KMUTNB)North BangkokThailand
  3. 3.Digital Additive ProductionRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

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