, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 485–491 | Cite as

Formation and Dissolution of Crust Upon Alumina Addition into Cryolite Electrolyte (II)

  • Youjian YangEmail author
  • Youcai Li
  • Yipeng Huang
  • Bingliang Gao
  • Xianwei Hu
  • Zhaowen Wang
  • Wenju Tao
  • Fengguo Liu
  • Zhongning Shi
  • Jiangyu Yu
Primary Aluminum Production Chain: Bauxite-Alumina-Electrode-Reduction


The crusting/agglomerating behavior and heat transfer process upon feeding of smelting-grade alumina into aluminum electrolyte were investigated using a suspended weighing device. The influence of several feeding conditions on agglomerate formation and the heat transfer process, including the operating temperature (1173 K and 1233 K), feeding amount (5 g or 10 g alumina into 500 g electrolyte), and alumina preheating temperature (293 K and 773 K), was also analyzed. The results revealed that the mass of agglomerate was largely dependent on the feeding quantity, while the alumina content in the agglomerate stabilized at approximately 35%. Higher electrolyte temperature benefits the dissolution process in several ways: increasing the proportion of fast dissolution alumina, inhibiting agglomerate formation, and enhancing the agglomerate dissolution rate. The properties of the agglomerate were characterized, and surface microscopy revealed further details about its formation process.



The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from the Fundamental Research Funds for the Northeastern University (Grant No. N172503015) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51804069, 51529401, 51434005, 51474060).


  1. 1.
    P. Lavoie, M. Taylor, and J. Metson, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 47, 2690 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Welch and G.K. Kuschel, JOM 59, 50 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Solheim, Light Met. 711 (2014). Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Yang, B. Gao, Z. Wang, Z. Shi, and X. Hu, JOM 67, 2170 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Skybakmoen, A. Solheim, and Å. Sterten, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 28, 81 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Yang, D. Graczyk, H. Catherine, and N. John, Light Met. 537 (2007).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Cassayre, P. Palau, P. Chamelot, and L. Massot, J. Chem. Eng. Data 55, 4549 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. Dando, X. Wang, J. Sorensen, and W. Xu, Light Met. 541 (2010).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Stull, and H. Prophet, JANAF Thermochemical Tables. U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington, Cp Fitted by CRCT, Montreal (1985).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Phan-Xuan, R. Castanet, and M. Laffitte, Light Met. 159 (1975).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MetallurgyNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory for Ecological Metallurgy of Multimetallic Mineral (Northeastern University)Ministry of EducationShenyangChina
  3. 3.School of Materials and EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations