, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 315–320 | Cite as

Effects of Cobalt on Physical and Mechanical Properties and In Vitro Degradation Behavior of Brushite Cement

  • Sahar VahabzadehEmail author
  • Sarah Fleck
  • Murali Krishna Duvvuru
  • Haley Cummings
Materials in Nanomedicine and Bioengineering


Cobalt (Co), a vital element in biological functions, induces osteogenesis and angiogenesis at low concentrations. We present the effects of Co and its concentration on the setting time, compressive strength, and degradation behavior of brushite cement (BrC), a potential candidate to fill small bone defects. Addition of Co at up to 1 wt.% decreased the compressive strength in a dose-dependent manner to 1.09 ± 0.21 MPa. The initial setting time decreased in samples with 0.25 wt.% Co from 3.67 ± 0.23 min to 2.21 ± 0.04 min, then increased to 6.80 ± 0.08 min with addition of 1 wt.% cobalt, while a similar trend was found for the final setting time. The stable pH of the buffer during degradation along with phase analysis showing presence of only tricalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate suggest that the disintegration of the cement is not accompanied by any noticeable chemical reaction. These data show that, although Co significantly affects the setting time and compressive strength, it does not play a critical role in the degradation behavior of BrC.



The authors would like to thank Mr. Gregg Westberg, Microelectronics Research and Development Lab (MRDL) manager, and Dr. Stanislaw Kolesnik from the Department of Physics at Northern Illinois University. We would also like to acknowledge Dr. Michael Haji-Sheikh from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sahar Vahabzadeh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sarah Fleck
    • 1
  • Murali Krishna Duvvuru
    • 1
  • Haley Cummings
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA
  2. 2.NASA Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA

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