, Volume 70, Issue 11, pp 2435–2442 | Cite as

Post-mortem Study of Magnesia–Chromite Refractory Used in a Submerged Arc Furnace in the Copper-Making Process

  • Ismael PérezEmail author
  • Ignacio Moreno-Ventas
  • Roberto Parra
  • Guillermo Ríos
Refractory Materials for Metallurgical Uses


The periodical relining of furnaces because of refractory wear is a cost driver in the copper-making industry. This paper presents a post-mortem study of the refractory lining of a submerged arc furnace used in slag-cleaning operations at the Atlantic Copper Smelter (Spain) after a 6-year campaign. Samples were taken from different locations in the area in contact with slag and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. New phases were generated as a consequence of the chemical interaction between the molten slag in the bath and the magnesia–chromite refractory lining. The chemical dissolution of the magnesia of the refractory and the incorporation of iron from the slag in the refractory phases were the main drivers. From this interaction, a reaction layer on the hot face of the refractory was formed, whose properties differ from the as-delivered refractory.



This work was carried out with financial support from Atlantic Copper S.L.U., which collaborates extensively with the University of Huelva. The authors wish to express their gratitude for this support.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth Science, Facultad de Ciencias ExperimentalesUniversity of HuelvaHuelvaSpain
  2. 2.Atlantic Copper S.L.U.HuelvaSpain
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación en Química Sostenible (CIQSO)University of HuelvaHuelvaSpain
  4. 4.Departamento de MetalurgicaUniversity of ConcepciónConcepciónChile

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