, Volume 70, Issue 11, pp 2428–2434 | Cite as

Copper Anode Furnace: Chemical, Mineralogical and Thermo-Chemical Considerations of Refractory Wear Mechanisms

  • D. GregurekEmail author
  • J. Schmidl
  • K. Reinharter
  • V. Reiter
  • A. Spanring
Refractory Materials for Metallurgical Uses


In copper anode furnaces, the installed refractory lining is exposed to chemical attack caused by slag and copper oxide. This results in infiltration of the brick microstructure and corrosion of the bricks’ inherent components. Increased temperature level changes the temperature and partial pressure during the furnace operation, as well as the copper infiltration into the brick microstructure, leading to further degeneration of the microstructure and decreased lining life. The mechanical load includes the erosion caused by primary movement of the metal bath, slag and charging material, as well as stresses in the brickwork due to improper lining procedures. Thus, chemical and mineralogical investigation carried out on “post-mortem samples”, together with thermochemical calculations by FactSage™ software, enables better understanding of refractory wear in the copper anode furnace.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Gregurek
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Schmidl
    • 2
  • K. Reinharter
    • 1
  • V. Reiter
    • 1
  • A. Spanring
    • 2
  1. 1.RHI Magnesita, TC LeobenLeobenAustria
  2. 2.RHI MagnesitaViennaAustria

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