, Volume 70, Issue 6, pp 866–871 | Cite as

Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

  • Eric T. Stromme
  • Hunter B. Henderson
  • Zachary C. Sims
  • Michael S. Kesler
  • David Weiss
  • Ryan T. Ott
  • Fanqiang Meng
  • Sam Kassoumeh
  • James Evangelista
  • Gerald Begley
  • Orlando Rios
Recent Developments in the Processing of Magnetic Materials


Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatment line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. This work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.



This research was sponsored by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office, Eck Industries, and TTE Casting Technologies.

Supplementary material

11837_2018_2861_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (240 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 239 kb)


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  3. 3.Eck Industries, Inc.ManitowocUSA
  4. 4.Ames Laboratory (USDOE)AmesUSA
  5. 5.Shiloh Industries, Inc.PlymouthUSA
  6. 6.Tennessee Tool and Engineering, Inc.Oak RidgeUSA

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